Melanoma Arising in African-, Asian-, Latino- and Native-American Populations
ABSTRACT This review highlights melanoma trends observed among African-, Asian-, Latino- and Native-American populations. Melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer, accounting for about 75% of all skin cancer deaths. Generally, incidence rates increase with age, peak after age 40, and are greater in men than women. However, these trends do not reflect what is typically seen in minority ethnic groups, where incidence rates are lower. In addition, for some groups, relative disease-specific survival also is lower compared with European-Americans. Melanomas in minority populations also tend to appear in atypical locations and are of unclear etiology. To improve our understanding of the causes of melanoma arising in ethnic minority populations future research efforts are needed. In addition, the general lack of awareness of this disease entity among minority populations and the fact that certain ethnic groups tend to present with advanced disease further highlight the need for educational programs for both patients and health care professionals.
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ABSTRACT: Genistein-8-C-glucoside (G8CG) belongs to isoflavones, which are a subclass of flavonoids, a large group of polyphenolic compounds widely distributed in plants. A number of studies on flavonoids show their cardioprotective and antiosteoporosis properties in in vitro and in vivo models. As a phytoestrogen, genistein has recently generated interest as a potential anticancer and antiatherogenic agent. Several flavonoids are known as antioxidants and scavengers of free oxygen radicals. In the current investigation we used glycosylated genistein (genistein-8-C-glucoside) from flowers of lupine (Lupinus luteus L.). Many authors have found that the action of genistein is not so simple, although many reports conducted in vitro have demonstrated that it is cytotoxic and genotoxic. Therefore, the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of this compound in Chinese hamster ovary cells (line CHO) were studied. A colorimetric MTT assay to assess cytotoxicity and a Comet assay for the detection of DNA damage were used. Apoptosis was determined by the Hoechst 33258/propidium iodide staining technique. We have also demonstrated antioxidant properties of G8CG. The level of reactive oxygen species generated by G8CG alone and/or H2O2 was evaluated with fluorescence probes: dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFDA) by flow cytometry. The cells were exposed to various concentrations of genistein-8-C-glucoside (1-290 microM) and hydrogen peroxide (10-130 microM) and the effect of G8CG alone or in combination with H2O2 was determined. The results reveal that G8CG at concentrations higher than 10 microM significantly reduced cell viability, induced apoptosis and DNA damage. However at lower concentrations (5 and 7.5 microM), G8CG showed antioxidant properties, but had no cytotoxic or genotoxic activity.Cell Biology International 12/2007; 31(11):1371-8. DOI:10.1016/j.cellbi.2007.05.012 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) pathway plays a key role in melanoma development making it an important therapeutic target. In normal cells, the tightly regulated pathway relays extracellular signals from cell membrane to nucleus via a cascade of phosphorylation events. In melanomas, dysregulation of the MAPK pathway occurs frequently due to activating mutations in the B-RAF and RAS genes or other genetic or epigenetic modifications, leading to increased signaling activity promoting cell proliferation, invasion, metastasis, migration, survival and angiogenesis. However, identification of ideal pathway member to therapeutically target for maximal clinical benefit to melanoma patients remains a challenge. This review provides an overview of the obstacles faced targeting the MAPK pathway and why certain therapeutic approaches succeed while others fail. The review summarizes the roles played by the proteins, therapeutic potential and the drugs available to target each member of the pathway as well as concerns related to each. Potential for targeting multiple points and inhibiting other pathways along with MAPK inhibition for optimal efficacy are discussed along with explanations for development of drug resistance, which includes discussions related to cross-talk between pathways, RAF kinase isoform switching and phosphatase deregulation. Finally, the use of nanotechnology is reviewed as an approach to target the MAPK pathway using both genetic and pharmacological agents simultaneously targeting multiple points in the pathway or in combination with other cascades.Biochemical pharmacology 05/2010; 80(5):624-37. DOI:10.1016/j.bcp.2010.04.029 · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Malignant melanoma is a rare disease in Taiwan with an incidence rate of 0.65/100,000. Excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation is not associated with most Taiwanese melanoma cases. Acral lentiginous melanoma comprises 58% of cutaneous melanoma. Advanced disease is seen in 50% of cases. Surgery, including resection of the primary melanoma, sentinel lymph nodes that may harbor microscopic metastasis, clinically abnormal lymph nodes, and selected distant metastases, is the most important treatment. Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy has changed the clinical stage in 22.2% of our patients. Adjuvant high-dose interferon significantly prolongs progression-free survival. However, its use in Taiwan is limited by its substantial toxicity. The prognosis of metastatic disease remains poor with a median survival of 12 months. In the past, chemotherapy alone was the most common treatment modality for metastatic disease. Recently biochemotherapy has been more commonly utilized to treat patients with metastatic melanoma.Chang Gung medical journal 11/2010; 33(6):602-12.