Palladium-Based Electrocatalysts for Alcohol Oxidation in Half Cells and in Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells

Istituto di Chimica dei Composti OrganoMetallici (ICCOM-CNR), Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy.
Chemical Reviews (Impact Factor: 46.57). 08/2009; 109(9):4183-206. DOI: 10.1021/cr9000995
Source: PubMed


The discussion of the state-of-the art of the synthesis and characterization of Pd-based electrocatalysts for the oxidation of alcohols, and is widely documented that Pd and Pd-alloy nanoparticles, supported on a variety of conductive materials, exhibit superior activity for the electrooxidation of alcohols and polyalcohols in alkaline solutions. Notable efforts are therefore being carried out to design new catalytic structures for DAFC anodes that do not contain platinum or contain tiny amounts of this rare metal and, most of all, are able to oxidize primary and secondary alcohols with fast kinetics and tolerable deactivation. Pd-based catalysts are particularly suitable for the selective oxidation of ethanol to acetate. The selective oxidation of alcohols, in particular of ethanol, ethylene glycol, and glycerol to carboxylate derivatives, isolable as alkali metal salts, opens new perspectives to the use of DAFCs as reactors capable of supplying energy.

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    • "This contributes to increasing interests in the development of Pt-free catalysts in recent years. In particular, Pd has been regarded as one of the most promising catalysts in fuel cells [10] [11] [12], considering its high electrocatalytic activity and relatively abundant reserves compared with that of Pt [13] [14] [15]. "
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, RuO2-SnO2 binary oxides were prepared using a hydrothermal approach and added to Vulcan XC-72 carbon black as new support material for Pd. The X-ray diffraction, Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectronic spectra results show that the addition of binary oxides leads to the formation of (Ru,Sn)O2 solid solution in Pd/C catalyst and reduces the particle size of Pd particles due to the anchoring effect. In addition, the electrochemical CO-striping measurement reveals that the Pd/RuO2-SnO2/C catalyst exhibits the largest electrochemical active surface and the best CO tolerance. Moreover, cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry tests demonstrate that the Pd/RuO2-SnO2/C catalyst possesses a much higher specific activity (4.4 mA cm−2) than that of the Pd/C catalyst (3.2 mA cm−2) towards ethylene glycol electrooxidation in alkaline media, and better stability as well. These results support the suitability of Pd/RuO2-SnO2/C catalyst developed in this work as a promising candidate for direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs) application.
    Electrochimica Acta 08/2015; 174. DOI:10.1016/j.electacta.2015.05.166 · 4.50 Impact Factor
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    • "As expected, the current on the PdPt/CNTs catalyst was the highest during the whole time (Fig. 8B), showing a best stability for ethanol oxidation. The ethanol oxidation mechanism was widely investigated in alkaline media [48]. The carbonaceous intermediates, denoted as (CH 3 CO) ads , were adsorbed on catalyst by ethanol adsorption at the initial stage, accompanied with the adsorption of OH species from the alkaline media, named as (OH) ads . "
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    ABSTRACT: Herein, a facile ultrasonic-assisted strategy was proposed to fabricate the Pd-Pt alloy/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Pd-Pt/CNTs) nanocomposites. A good number of Pd-Pt alloy nanoparticles with an average of 3.4 ± 0.5 nm were supported on sidewalls of CNTs with uniform distribution. The composition of the Pd-Pt/CNTs nanocomposites could also be easily controlled, which provided a possible approach for the preparation of other architectures with anticipated properties. The Pd-Pt/CNTs nanocomposites were extensively studied by electron microscopy, induced coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and applied for the ethanol and methanol electro-oxidation reaction in alkaline medium. The electrochemical results indicated that the nanocomposites had better electrocatalytic activities and stabilities, showing promising applications for fuel cells.
    Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 07/2015; 28. DOI:10.1016/j.ultsonch.2015.07.021 · 4.32 Impact Factor
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    • "However, these methods usually require long reaction time and complicated steps to modify the surface. Furthermore, non-uniform decoration with metal NP is observed due to the imperfect surface modification [2] [17] [18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: A sonochemical method has been employed for the synthesis of palladium oxide (PdO) nanoparticles deposited on silica nanoparticle. By sonochemical process, the PdO nanoparticles were doped on the surface of silica at room temperature and atmospheric pressure with short reaction time. Silica nanoparticles were used as a supporting material to suppress aggregation and thereby to increase surface area of PdO nanoparticles. Fabricated PdO-doped silica nanoparticle (PdO@SNP) was applied as a nanocatalyst for selective alcohol oxidation reaction in the presence of molecular oxygen. The PdO@SNP composite showed higher catalytic activity and selectivity than unsupported PdO nanoparticle for aerobic alcohol oxidation reaction.
    Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 07/2015; 28(2016):178–184. DOI:10.1016/j.ultsonch.2015.07.020 · 4.32 Impact Factor
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