Volatile Constituents throughout Brassica oleracea L. Var. acephala Germination
ABSTRACT In this work, the volatile composition of kale ( Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) and its variation during germination were monitored during the first 9 days of seedling development by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography/ion trap-mass spectrometry (GC/IT-MS). Differences were found among the materials in the distinct analyzed periods. A total of 66 volatile compounds, distributed in several chemical classes, were determined: alcohols, carbonyl compounds (ketones, aldehydes, and esters), norisoprenoids, and terpenes, among others, sulfur compounds being the most abundant group in seeds and sprouts that exhibited allyl isothiocyanate as the major compound. Leaves of fully developed ground plant had the highest content of norisoprenoids, alcohols, and carbonyl compounds; in opposition, they showed lower levels of sulfur compounds, suggesting that these are important molecules for the development of kale, whereas the others are produced mainly during its growth.
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ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the efficacy of individual treatments (thermosonication [TS+DW] and slightly acidic electrolyzed water [SAcEW]) and their combination on reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and spoilage microorganisms (total bacterial counts [TBC], Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., and yeast and mold counts [YMC]) on fresh-cut kale. For comparison, the antimicrobial efficacies of sodium chlorite (SC; 100 mg/L) and sodium hypochlorite (SH; 100 mg/L) were also evaluated. Each 10 g sample of kale leaves was inoculated to contain approximately 6 log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 or L. monocytogenes. Each inoculated or uninoculated samples was then dip treated with deionized water (DW; control), TS+DW, and SAcEW at various treatment conditions (temperature, physicochemical properties, and time) to assess the efficacy of each individual treatment. The efficacy of TS+DW or SAcEW was enhanced at 40 °C for 3 min, with an acoustic energy density of 400 W/L for TS+DW and available chlorine concentration of 5 mg/L for SAcEW. At 40 °C for 3 min, combined treatment of thermosonication 400 W/L and SAcEW 5 mg/L (TS+SAcEW) was more effective in reducing microorganisms compared to the individual treatments (SAcEW, SC, SH, and TS+DW) and combined treatments (TS+SC and TS+SH), which significantly (P < 0.05) reduced E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, TBC, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., and YMC by 3.32, 3.11, 3.97, 3.66, 3.62, and >3.24 log CFU/g, respectively. The results suggest that the combined treatment of TS+SAcEW has the potential as a decontamination process in fresh-cut industry. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®Journal of Food Science 06/2015; 80(6):M1277-84. DOI:10.1111/1750-3841.12888 · 1.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aroma is one of the essential parameters for the evaluation of fruit quality, with volatile components being determinant for this characteristic. During this work, the volatile profile of fresh fruits (pulp and peel) and leaves of Portuguese Ficus carica L. white (“Pingo de Mel” and “Branca Tradicional”) and dark (“Borrasota Tradicional”, “Verbera Preta” and “Preta Tradicional”) varieties were characterised by HS-SPME/GC–IT-MS.Fifty-nine compounds were identified and distributed by distinct chemical classes (aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, esters, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, norisoprenoids), with 39 being reported for the first time in this species. Principal component analysis of semi-quantitative data showed that pulps and peels are distinguished from leaves by their abundance of monoterpenes and aldehydes. All varieties presented a similar volatile profile, although some differences between white and dark varieties were noticed.This is the first study comparing volatile composition of several materials from F. carica. In addition, no previous study involved the above mentioned varieties.Food Chemistry 11/2010; 123(2):548-557. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.04.064 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In higher plants, copper ions, hydrogen peroxide, and cycloheximide have been recognized as very effective inducers of the transcriptional activity of genes encoding the enzymes of the ethylene biosynthesis pathway. In this report, the transcriptional patterns of genes encoding the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthases (ACSs), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidases (ACOs), ETR1, ETR2, and ERS1 ethylene receptors, phospholipase D (PLD)-alpha1, -alpha2, -gamma1, and -delta, and respiratory burst oxidase homologue (Rboh)-NADPH oxidase-D and -F in response to these inducers in Brassica oleracea etiolated seedlings are shown. ACS1, ACO1, ETR2, PLD-gamma1, and RbohD represent genes whose expression was considerably affected by all of the inducers used. The investigations were performed on the seedlings with (i) ethylene insensitivity and (ii) a reduced level of the PLD-derived phosphatidic acid (PA). The general conclusion is that the expression of ACS1, -3, -4, -5, -7, and -11, ACO1, ETR1, ERS1, and ETR2, PLD-gamma 1, and RbohD and F genes is undoubtedly under the reciprocal cross-talk of the ethylene and PA(PLD) signalling routes; both signals affect it in concerted or opposite ways depending on the gene or the type of stimuli. The results of these studies on broccoli seedlings are in agreement with the hypothesis that PA may directly affect the ethylene signal transduction pathway via an inhibitory effect on CTR1 (constitutive triple response 1) activity.Journal of Experimental Botany 07/2010; 61(12):3475-91. DOI:10.1093/jxb/erq177 · 5.79 Impact Factor