Regulation of intracerebral arteriolar tone by K(v) channels: effects of glucose and PKC.
ABSTRACT Voltage-gated potassium (K(v)) channels in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) are critical regulators of membrane potential and vascular tone. These channels exert a hyperpolarizing influence to counteract the depolarizing effects of intraluminal pressure and vasoconstrictors. However, the contribution of K(v) channel activity to the functional regulation of cerebral (parenchymal) arterioles within the brain is not known. Thus K(v) channel properties in parenchymal arteriolar SMCs were characterized. Isolated, pressurized parenchymal arterioles and arterioles in cortical brain slices exhibited robust constriction in the presence of the K(v) channel inhibitor 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). 4-AP also decreased the amplitude of K(v) currents recorded from SMCs. The steady-state activation and inactivation properties of K(v) currents suggested that these channels are composed of K(v)1.2 and 1.5 subunits, which was confirmed by RT-PCR. K(v) channels can be regulated by extracellular glucose, which may be involved in the functional hyperemic response in the brain. Thus the effects of glucose on K(v) channel activity and arteriolar function were investigated. Elevation of glucose from 4 to 14 mM significantly decreased the peak K(v) current amplitude and constricted arterioles. Arteriolar constriction was prevented by inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC), consistent with previous studies showing enhanced PKC activity in the presence of elevated glucose. In cortical brain slices, the dilation generated by neuronal activity induced by electrical field stimulation was decreased by 54% in 14 mM glucose when compared with the dilation in 4 mM glucose. In anesthetized mice the whisker stimulation-induced increase in local cerebral blood flow was also significantly decreased in 14 mM glucose, and this effect was similarly prevented by PKC inhibition. These findings point to a critical role for K(v) channels in the regulation of intracerebral arteriolar function and suggest that changes in perivascular glucose levels could directly alter vascular diameter resulting in a modulation of local cerebral blood flow.
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ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that chronic hyperglycemia has a detrimental effect on neurovascular coupling in the brain and that this may be linked to protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated phosphorylation. Therefore, in a rat model of streptozotocin-induced chronic type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and in nondiabetic (ND) controls, we monitored pial arteriole diameter changes during sciatic nerve stimulation and topical applications of the large-conductance Ca(2+)-operated K(+) channel (BK(Ca)) opener, NS-1619, or the K(+) inward rectifier (Kir) channel agonist, K(+). In the T1DM vs. ND rats, the dilatory response associated with sciatic nerve stimulation was decreased by ∼30%, whereas pial arteriolar dilations to NS-1619 and K(+) were largely suppressed. These responses were completely restored by the acute topical application of a PKC antagonist, calphostin C. Moreover, the suffusion of a PKC activator, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, in ND rats was able to reproduce the vascular reactivity impairments found in T1DM rats. Assay of PKC activity in brain samples from T1DM vs. ND rats revealed a significant gain in activity only in specimens harvested from the pial and superficial glia limitans tissue, but not in bulk cortical gray matter. Altogether, these findings suggest that the T1DM-associated impairment of neurovascular coupling may be mechanistically linked to a readily reversible PKC-mediated depression of BK(Ca) and Kir channel activity.AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 01/2012; 302(6):H1274-84. · 4.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex syndrome which leads to multiple dysfunctions including vascular disorders. Hyperglycemia is considered to be a key factor responsible for the development of diabetic vascular complications and can mediate their adverse effects through multiple pathways. One of those mechanisms is the activation of protein kinase C (PKC). This important regulatory enzyme is involved in a signal transduction of several vascular functions including vascular smooth muscle contractility. Many studies have shown that hyperglycemia in DM results in oxidative stress. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by different oxidases and the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC), advanced glycation end products, polyol pathway flux, and hyperglicemia-induced rising in diacylglycerol (DAG) contribute to the activation of PKC. Activation of endothelial PKC in DM leads to endothelium-dependent vasodilator dysfunction. The main manifestations of this are inhibition of vasodilatation mediated by nitric oxide (NO), endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) and prostacyclin, and activation of vasoconstriction mediated by endothelin-1 (ET-1), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and thromboxane A2 (TXA2). Activated PKC in DM also increases vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and activates NADPH oxidases leading to raised ROS production. On the other hand, PKC in DM is involved in enhancement of vascular contractility in an endothelium-independent manner by inactivation of K(+) channels and Ca(2+) sensitization of myofilaments in vascular smooth muscle cells. This shows that PKC is a potential therapeutic target for treating vascular diabetic complications.International journal of cardiology 04/2014; 174:230-242. · 6.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An understanding of the signalling events underlying neurovascular coupling mechanisms in the brain is a crucial step in the development of novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of cerebrovascular-associated disorders. In this study we present an enhanced in vitro brain slice preparation from male Wistar rat cortical slices that incorporates haemodynamic variables (flow and pressure) into parenchymal arterioles resulting in the development of myogenic tone (28% from maximum dilatation). Moreover, we characterized flow-induced vascular responses, resulting in various degrees of vasoconstrictions and the response to 10 mM K(+) or astrocytic activation with the mGluR agonist, t-ACPD (100 μM), resulting in vasodilatations of 33.6±4.7% and 38.6±4.6%, respectively. Using fluorescence recovery, we determined perfusate velocity to calculate diameter changes under different experimental pH conditions. Using this approach, we demonstrate no significant differences between diameter changes measured using videomicroscopy or predicted from the velocity values obtained using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. The model is further validated by demonstrating our ability to cannulate arterioles in two brain regions (cortex and supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus). Altogether, we believe this is the first study demonstrating successful cannulation and perfusion of parenchymal arterioles while monitoring/estimating luminal diameter and pressure under conditions where flow rates are controlled.The Journal of Physiology 02/2012; 590(Pt 7):1757-70. · 4.38 Impact Factor