Regulation of intracerebral arteriolar tone by KV channels: effects of glucose and PKC

Dept. of Pharmacology, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA.
AJP Cell Physiology (Impact Factor: 3.78). 08/2009; 297(3):C788-96. DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00148.2009
Source: PubMed


Voltage-gated potassium (K(v)) channels in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) are critical regulators of membrane potential and vascular tone. These channels exert a hyperpolarizing influence to counteract the depolarizing effects of intraluminal pressure and vasoconstrictors. However, the contribution of K(v) channel activity to the functional regulation of cerebral (parenchymal) arterioles within the brain is not known. Thus K(v) channel properties in parenchymal arteriolar SMCs were characterized. Isolated, pressurized parenchymal arterioles and arterioles in cortical brain slices exhibited robust constriction in the presence of the K(v) channel inhibitor 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). 4-AP also decreased the amplitude of K(v) currents recorded from SMCs. The steady-state activation and inactivation properties of K(v) currents suggested that these channels are composed of K(v)1.2 and 1.5 subunits, which was confirmed by RT-PCR. K(v) channels can be regulated by extracellular glucose, which may be involved in the functional hyperemic response in the brain. Thus the effects of glucose on K(v) channel activity and arteriolar function were investigated. Elevation of glucose from 4 to 14 mM significantly decreased the peak K(v) current amplitude and constricted arterioles. Arteriolar constriction was prevented by inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC), consistent with previous studies showing enhanced PKC activity in the presence of elevated glucose. In cortical brain slices, the dilation generated by neuronal activity induced by electrical field stimulation was decreased by 54% in 14 mM glucose when compared with the dilation in 4 mM glucose. In anesthetized mice the whisker stimulation-induced increase in local cerebral blood flow was also significantly decreased in 14 mM glucose, and this effect was similarly prevented by PKC inhibition. These findings point to a critical role for K(v) channels in the regulation of intracerebral arteriolar function and suggest that changes in perivascular glucose levels could directly alter vascular diameter resulting in a modulation of local cerebral blood flow.

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    • "An attempt to circumvent the limitation of pressure/flow within parenchymal arterioles has been the addition of a vasoconstrictor agent (i.e. U46619 (Brown et al. 2002; Filosa et al. 2004; Metea & Newman, 2006; Blanco et al. 2008; Straub et al. 2009; Girouard et al. 2010), L-NAME (Zonta et al. 2003; Mulligan & MacVicar, 2004), prostaglandin (Staunton et al. 1998, 2000) or vasopressin (Fergus & Lee, 1997a,b)) to the perfusate. While this later step increases vascular tone, bath application of these agents may inadvertently alter the state of key players in neurovascular coupling, creating a new problem in data interpretation of signalling mechanisms. "
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    ABSTRACT: An understanding of the signalling events underlying neurovascular coupling mechanisms in the brain is a crucial step in the development of novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of cerebrovascular-associated disorders. In this study we present an enhanced in vitro brain slice preparation from male Wistar rat cortical slices that incorporates haemodynamic variables (flow and pressure) into parenchymal arterioles resulting in the development of myogenic tone (28% from maximum dilatation). Moreover, we characterized flow-induced vascular responses, resulting in various degrees of vasoconstrictions and the response to 10 mM K(+) or astrocytic activation with the mGluR agonist, t-ACPD (100 μM), resulting in vasodilatations of 33.6±4.7% and 38.6±4.6%, respectively. Using fluorescence recovery, we determined perfusate velocity to calculate diameter changes under different experimental pH conditions. Using this approach, we demonstrate no significant differences between diameter changes measured using videomicroscopy or predicted from the velocity values obtained using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. The model is further validated by demonstrating our ability to cannulate arterioles in two brain regions (cortex and supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus). Altogether, we believe this is the first study demonstrating successful cannulation and perfusion of parenchymal arterioles while monitoring/estimating luminal diameter and pressure under conditions where flow rates are controlled.
    The Journal of Physiology 02/2012; 590(Pt 7):1757-70. DOI:10.1113/jphysiol.2011.222778 · 5.04 Impact Factor
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    • "The remaining current in SMCs was insensitive to ChTx and apamin, and likely represents current through voltage-dependent K + channels (K V 1.2/1.5) (Straub et al, 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Calcium-sensitive potassium (K(Ca)) channels have been shown to modulate the diameter of cerebral pial arteries; however, little is known regarding their roles in controlling cerebral parenchymal arterioles (PAs). We explored the function and cellular distribution of small-conductance (SK(Ca)) and intermediate-conductance (IK(Ca)) K(Ca) channels and large-conductance K(Ca) (BK(Ca)) channels in endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of PAs. Both SK(Ca) and IK(Ca) channels conducted the outward current in isolated PA ECs (current densities, ~20 pA/pF and ~28 pA/pF at +40 mV, respectively), but these currents were not detected in PA SMCs. In contrast, BK(Ca) currents were prominent in PA SMCs (~154 pA/pF), but were undetectable in PA ECs. Pressurized PAs constricted to inhibition of SK(Ca) (~16%) and IK(Ca) (~16%) channels, but were only modestly affected by inhibition of BK(Ca) channels (~5%). Blockade of SK(Ca) and IK(Ca) channels decreased resting cortical cerebral blood flow (CBF) by ~15%. NS309 (6,7-dichloro-1H-indole-2,3-dione3-oxime), a SK(Ca)/IK(Ca) channel opener, hyperpolarized PA SMCs by ~27 mV, maximally dilated pressurized PAs, and increased CBF by ~40%. In conclusion, these data show that SK(Ca) and IK(Ca) channels in ECs profoundly modulate PA tone and CBF, whereas BK(Ca) channels in SMCs only modestly influence PA diameter.
    Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 12/2010; 31(5):1175-86. DOI:10.1038/jcbfm.2010.214 · 5.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ca(+) sparklets are subcellular Ca(2+) signals produced by the opening of L-type Ca(2+) channels (LTCCs). In cerebral arterial myocytes, Ca(2+) sparklet activity varies regionally, resulting in low and high activity, "persistent" Ca(2+) sparklet sites. Although increased Ca(2+) influx via LTCCs in arterial myocytes has been implicated in the chain of events contributing to vascular dysfunction during acute hyperglycemia and diabetes, the mechanisms underlying these pathological changes remain unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that increased Ca(2+) sparklet activity contributes to higher Ca(2+) influx in cerebral artery smooth muscle during acute hyperglycemia and in an animal model of non-insulin-dependent, type 2 diabetes: the dB/dB mouse. Consistent with this hypothesis, acute elevation of extracellular glucose from 10 to 20 mM increased the density of low activity and persistent Ca(2+) sparklet sites as well as the amplitude of LTCC currents in wild-type cerebral arterial myocytes. Furthermore, Ca(2+) sparklet activity and LTCC currents were higher in dB/dB than in control myocytes. We found that activation of PKA contributed to higher Ca(2+) sparklet activity during hyperglycemia and diabetes. In addition, we found that the interaction between PKA and the scaffolding protein A-kinase anchoring protein was critical for the activation of persistent Ca(2+) sparklets by PKA in cerebral arterial myocytes after hyperglycemia. Accordingly, PKA inhibition equalized Ca(2+) sparklet activity between dB/dB and wild-type cells. These findings suggest that hyperglycemia increases Ca(2+) influx by increasing Ca(2+) sparklet activity via a PKA-dependent pathway in cerebral arterial myocytes and contributes to vascular dysfunction during diabetes.
    AJP Cell Physiology 10/2009; 298(2):C211-20. DOI:10.1152/ajpcell.00267.2009 · 3.78 Impact Factor
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