Regulation of intracerebral arteriolar tone by K(v) channels: effects of glucose and PKC.
ABSTRACT Voltage-gated potassium (K(v)) channels in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) are critical regulators of membrane potential and vascular tone. These channels exert a hyperpolarizing influence to counteract the depolarizing effects of intraluminal pressure and vasoconstrictors. However, the contribution of K(v) channel activity to the functional regulation of cerebral (parenchymal) arterioles within the brain is not known. Thus K(v) channel properties in parenchymal arteriolar SMCs were characterized. Isolated, pressurized parenchymal arterioles and arterioles in cortical brain slices exhibited robust constriction in the presence of the K(v) channel inhibitor 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). 4-AP also decreased the amplitude of K(v) currents recorded from SMCs. The steady-state activation and inactivation properties of K(v) currents suggested that these channels are composed of K(v)1.2 and 1.5 subunits, which was confirmed by RT-PCR. K(v) channels can be regulated by extracellular glucose, which may be involved in the functional hyperemic response in the brain. Thus the effects of glucose on K(v) channel activity and arteriolar function were investigated. Elevation of glucose from 4 to 14 mM significantly decreased the peak K(v) current amplitude and constricted arterioles. Arteriolar constriction was prevented by inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC), consistent with previous studies showing enhanced PKC activity in the presence of elevated glucose. In cortical brain slices, the dilation generated by neuronal activity induced by electrical field stimulation was decreased by 54% in 14 mM glucose when compared with the dilation in 4 mM glucose. In anesthetized mice the whisker stimulation-induced increase in local cerebral blood flow was also significantly decreased in 14 mM glucose, and this effect was similarly prevented by PKC inhibition. These findings point to a critical role for K(v) channels in the regulation of intracerebral arteriolar function and suggest that changes in perivascular glucose levels could directly alter vascular diameter resulting in a modulation of local cerebral blood flow.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Gap junctions are widely present in spinal cord white matter; however their role in modulating the dynamics of axonal dysfunction remains largely unexplored. We hypothesized that inhibition of gap junctions reduces the loss of axonal function during oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). The functional role of gap junctions was assessed by electrophysiological recordings of compound action potentials (CAPs) in Wistar rat spinal cord slices using the sucrose-gap technique. The in vitro slices were subjected to 30 min OGD. Gap junction connexin (Cx) mRNA expression was determined using qPCR and normalized to β-actin. A 30 min OGD resulted in reduction of CAPs to 14.8±4.6% of their pre-OGD amplitude (n=5). In the presence of gap junction blockers carbenoxolone (Cbx; 100 µM) and octanol (Oct; 300 µM), the CAP reduction in OGD was to only 35.7±5.7% of pre-OGD amplitude in Cbx (n=9) and to 37.4±8.9% of pre-OGD amplitude in Oct (n=10). Both drugs also noticeably prolonged the half-decline time of CAP amplitudes in OGD from 6.0 min in no-drug conditions to 9.6 min in the presence of Cbx and to 7.7 min in the presence of Oct, suggesting that blocking gap junctions reduces conduction loss during OGD. With application of carbenoxolone and octanol in the setting of OGD, expression of Cx30 and Cx43 mRNA was downregulated. Our data provide new insights into the role of gap junctions in white matter ischemia and reveal the necessity of a cautious approach in determining detrimental or beneficial effects of gap junction blockade in white matter ischemia.Journal of Neurophysiology 07/2014; DOI:10.1152/jn.00037.2013 · 3.04 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: For decades it has been known that external potassium (K+) ions are rapid and potent vasodilators that increase cerebral blood flow (CBF). Recent studies have implicated the local release of K+ from astrocytic endfeet—which encase the entirety of the parenchymal vasculature—in the dynamic regulation of local CBF during neurovascular coupling (NVC). It has been proposed that the activation of strong inward rectifier K+ (KIR) channels in the vascular wall by external K+ is a central component of these hyperemic responses; however, a number of significant gaps in our knowledge remain. Here, we explore the concept that vascular KIR channels are the major extracellular K+ sensors in the control of CBF. We propose that K+ is an ideal mediator of NVC, and discuss KIR channels as effectors that produce rapid hyperpolarization and robust vasodilation of cerebral arterioles. We provide evidence that KIR channels, of the KIR2 subtype in particular, are present in both the endothelial and smooth muscle cells of parenchymal arterioles and propose that this dual positioning of KIR2 channels increases the robustness of the vasodilation to external K+, enables the endothelium to be actively engaged in neurovascular coupling, and permits electrical signaling through the endothelial syncytium to promote upstream vasodilation to modulate CBF.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Microcirculation (New York, N.Y.: 1994) 01/2015; 22(3). DOI:10.1111/micc.12190 · 2.26 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), caused by dominant mutations in the NOTCH3 receptor in vascular smooth muscle, is a genetic paradigm of small vessel disease (SVD) of the brain. Recent studies using transgenic (Tg)Notch3(R169C) mice, a genetic model of CADASIL, revealed functional defects in cerebral (pial) arteries on the surface of the brain at an early stage of disease progression. Here, using parenchymal arterioles (PAs) from within the brain, we determined the molecular mechanism underlying the early functional deficits associated with this Notch3 mutation. At physiological pressure (40 mmHg), smooth muscle membrane potential depolarization and constriction to pressure (myogenic tone) were blunted in PAs from TgNotch3(R169C) mice. This effect was associated with an ∼60% increase in the number of voltage-gated potassium (KV) channels, which oppose pressure-induced depolarization. Inhibition of KV1 channels with 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) or treatment with the epidermal growth factor receptor agonist heparin-binding EGF (HB-EGF), which promotes KV1 channel endocytosis, reduced KV current density and restored myogenic responses in PAs from TgNotch3(R169C) mice, whereas pharmacological inhibition of other major vasodilatory influences had no effect. KV1 currents and myogenic responses were similarly altered in pial arteries from TgNotch3(R169C) mice, but not in mesenteric arteries. Interestingly, HB-EGF had no effect on mesenteric arteries, suggesting a possible mechanistic basis for the exclusive cerebrovascular manifestation of CADASIL. Collectively, our results indicate that increasing the number of KV1 channels in cerebral smooth muscle produces a mutant vascular phenotype akin to a channelopathy in a genetic model of SVD.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2015; 112(7). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1420765112 · 9.81 Impact Factor