MEK5/ERK5 Signaling Modulates Endothelial Cell Migration and Focal Contact Turnover
ABSTRACT The formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones requires highly coordinated restructuring of endothelial cells (EC) and the surrounding extracellular matrix. Directed EC migration is a central step in this process and depends on cellular signaling cascades that initiate and control the structural rearrangements. On the basis of earlier findings that ERK5 deficiency in mouse EC results in massive defects in vessel architecture, we focused on the impact of the MEK5/ERK5 signaling pathway on EC migration. Using a retroviral gene transfer approach, we found that constitutive activation of MEK5/ERK5 signaling strongly inhibits EC migration and results in massive morphological changes. The area covered by spread EC was dramatically enlarged, accompanied by an increase in focal contacts and altered organization of actin filaments. Consequently, cells were more rigid and show reduced motility. This phenotype was most likely based on decreased focal contact turnover caused by reduced expression of p130Cas, a key player in directed cell migration. We demonstrate for the first time that ERK5 signaling not only is involved in EC survival and stress response but also controls migration and morphology of EC.
- SourceAvailable from: Subrata Chakrabarti[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most common causes of blindness in North America. Several signaling mechanisms are activated secondary to hyperglycemia in diabetes, leading to activation of vasoactive factors. We investigated a novel pathway, namely extracellular signal regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) mediated signaling, in modulating glucose-induced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) were exposed to glucose. In parallel, retinal tissues from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were examined after 4 months of follow-up. In HMVECs, glucose caused initial activation followed by deactivation of ERK5 and its downstream mediators myocyte enhancing factor 2C (MEF2C) and Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) mRNA expression. ERK5 inactivation further led to augmented VEGF mRNA expression. Furthermore, siRNA mediated ERK5 gene knockdown suppressed MEF2C and KLF2 expression and increased VEGF expression and angiogenesis. On the other hand, constitutively active MEK5, an activator of ERK5, increased ERK5 activation and ERK5 and KLF2 mRNA expression and attenuated basal- and glucose-induced VEGF mRNA expression. In the retina of diabetic rats, depletion of ERK5, KLF2 and upregulation of VEGF mRNA were demonstrated. These results indicated that ERK5 depletion contributes to glucose induced increased VEGF production and angiogenesis. Hence, ERK5 may be a putative therapeutic target to modulate VEGF expression in diabetic retinopathy.Journal of Ophthalmology 06/2010; 2010:465824. DOI:10.1155/2010/465824 · 1.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: ERK5 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 5), also termed BMK1 [big MAPK1 (mitogen-activated protein kinase 1)], is the most recently discovered member of the MAPK family. It is expressed in a variety of tissues and is activated by a range of growth factors, cytokines and cellular stresses. Targeted deletion of Erk5 in mice has revealed that the ERK5 signalling cascade is critical for normal cardiovascular development and vascular integrity. In vitro studies have revealed that in endothelial cells, ERK5 is required for preventing apoptosis, mediating shear-stress signalling, regulating hypoxia, tumour angiogenesis and cell migration. This review focuses on our current understanding of the role of ERK5 in regulating endothelial cell function.Biochemical Society Transactions 12/2009; 37(Pt 6):1254-9. DOI:10.1042/BST0371254 · 3.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The MEK5/Erk5 MAPK cascade has recently been implicated in the regulation of endothelial integrity and represents a candidate pathway mediating the beneficial effects of laminar flow, a major factor preventing vascular dysfunction and disease. Here we expressed a constitutively active mutant of MEK5 (MEK5D) to study the transcriptional and functional responses to Erk5 activation in human primary endothelial cells. We provide evidence that constitutive Erk5 activation elicits an overall protective phenotype characterized by increased apoptosis resistance and a decreased angiogenic, migratory, and inflammatory potential. This is supported by bioinformatic microarray analysis, which uncovered a statistical overrepresentation of corresponding functional clusters as well as a significant induction of anti-thrombotic, hemostatic, and vasodilatory genes. We identify KLF4 as a novel Erk5 target and demonstrate a critical role of this transcription factor downstream of Erk5. We show that KLF4 expression largely reproduces the protective phenotype in endothelial cells, whereas KLF4 siRNA suppresses expression of various Erk5 targets. Additionally, we show that vasoprotective statins potently induce KLF4 and KLF4-dependent gene expression via activation of Erk5. Our data underscore a major protective function of the MEK5/Erk5/KLF4 module in ECs and implicate agonistic Erk5 activation as potential strategy for treatment of vascular diseases.Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2010; 285(34):26199-210. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M110.103127 · 4.60 Impact Factor