Morbidly obese, diabetic, younger, and unilateral joint arthroplasty patients have elevated total joint arthroplasty infection rates.
ABSTRACT The study aims to delineate the deep infection rates and infection risk factors for primary total knee and total hip arthroplasty patients. A retrospective review was conducted on 6108 patients from 1991 to 2004. The deep infection cases were compared to the noninfected cohort whereby infection risk factors were identified. Of the 8494 joint arthroplasties, 43 (0.51%) developed a deep infection (30 total knee arthroplasties, 13 total hip arthroplasties). Patients with a body mass index greater than 50 had an increased odds ratio of infection of 21.3 (P < .0001). Diabetic patients were 3 times as likely to become infected compared to nondiabetic patients (P = .0027). Simultaneous bilateral total joint arthroplasties were found to have developed infection 3 times less frequently than those performed as unilateral procedures (P = .0024). The average age in our infection cohort was 64.3 and 68.4 in the noninfected cohort. In this retrospective review study, obesity, diabetes, and younger age were found to be risk factors for joint arthroplasty infection.
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ABSTRACT: Delivery of intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis within one hour prior to surgical incision is considered important in helping to decrease the incidence of surgical site infections, but methods to ensure compliance have not been established. All patients at our institution are subjected to a surgical "time-out" protocol to prevent wrong-site surgery. During a seven-week period, all patients undergoing spine surgery, total hip arthroplasty, or total knee arthroplasty had another safety initiative, that of ensuring that prophylactic intravenous antibiotics were administered at least one hour prior to incision, "piggybacked" onto our existing time-out verification checklist. In addition, we compared compliance during the study period with compliance during a three-month period prior to institution of this protocol and compliance for eighteen months after institution of this protocol. The average time (and standard deviation) between the antibiotic administration and the incision was 26 +/- 12 minutes for all patients. The protocol was effective in ensuring antibiotic administration at the optimal time to 316 (99.1%) of the 319 patients. Analysis of a group of forty patients who had undergone total hip or knee replacement during the three months prior to the beginning of the study demonstrated a compliance rate of 65%. The difference between this baseline compliance rate and the rate during the study period was significant (p < 0.0001). The compliance rate was 97% for 160 patients who underwent similar procedures during the eighteen months after completion of the study. Independent audits demonstrated continuation of the significantly better compliance with timing of antibiotic prophylaxis for patients undergoing total hip and knee arthroplasty since the implementation of the protocol in our institution. Piggybacking of verification of prophylactic antibiotic administration onto the wrong-site-surgery time-out protocol is an effective, cost-free, and easy-to-adopt method to ensure compliance with appropriate timing of prophylactic antibiotics.The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 02/2008; 90(2):226-32. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Implant dislocation is one of the commonest complications following primary total hip replacement (THR). We investigated the effect of body mass index (BMI) and tobacco use on the risk of this complication. Through linkage between the Swedish Construction Workers' cohort and the Swedish Inpatient Register, 2,106 male patients who had undergone primary THR between 1997 and 2004 were identified. We used Cox multivariable regression analysis to study the association between BMI and tobacco use and the risk of implant dislocation. 53 patients (2.5%) developed implant dislocation during a mean of 2 (0-3) years of follow-up. We found overweight and obesity to be associated with increased risk of implant dislocation (HR = 2.5,95% CI: 1.1-5.5 and HR = 3.7, 95% CI: 1.5-9.3, respectively as compared to those of normal weight). There was no statistically significant association between tobacco use and the risk of dislocation. Greater attention should be given to high BMI as a risk factor for implant dislocation following THR.Acta Orthopaedica 03/2008; 79(1):141-7. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Our objectives were to determine whether persistent hyperglycemia when compared with normoglycemia was predictive of outcome in the later stages of hospitalization in critically injured trauma patients. A prospective study was conducted on 896 consecutive trauma patients admitted to the intensive care unit during a 2-year period. Patients were stratified by serum glucose level on day 1 to day 28 (low = 0-139 mg/dL, medium to high = 140-219 mg/dL, and high = >220 mg/dL), age, gender, race, insulin dependent diabetes, obesity, and Injury Severity Score (ISS). Patients were further stratified by pattern of glucose control (all low, all moderate, all high, improving, worsening, highly variable. Outcome was measured by ventilator days, infection, hospital and intensive care unit length of stay, and mortality. Multiple variable logistic and linear regression models were used to determine level of significance. Eighty-three percent were victims of blunt trauma. The majority (74%) were male, with a mean ISS of 26 +/- 12. Hyperglycemia (moderate, worsening, and highly variable) in the first week was associated with significantly greater hospital and intensive care unit length of stay, ventilator time, infection, and mortality when controlling for age, race, gender, ISS, mechanism of injury, obesity, and insulin dependent diabetes (p < 0.03). However, hyperglycemia in later weeks was not associated with infection and only weakly associated with mortality when analyzed by the same model. When controlling for glucose levels in subsequent weeks, patients who were normoglycemic in the first week had a lower infection rate and were less likely to die even when controlling for age, ISS, and obesity (p < 0.05). Early euglycemia is associated with improved outcome and appears to be protective regardless of glucose levels in subsequent weeks. Further studies are warranted to determine the etiology of this protective effect.The Journal of trauma 01/2008; 63(6):1353-8; discussion 1358-9. · 2.35 Impact Factor