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    ABSTRACT: Methods of learning may differ between generations and even the level of training or the training paradigm, or both. To optimize education, it is important to optimize training designs, and the perspective of those being trained can aid in this quest. The Association of Program Directors in Vascular Surgery leadership sent a survey to all vascular surgical trainees (integrated [0/5], independent current and new graduates [5 + 2]) addressing various aspects of the educational experience. Of 412 surveys sent, 163 (∼40%) responded: 46 integrated, 96 fellows, and 21 graduates. The survey was completed by 52% of the integrated residents, 59% of the independent residents, and 20% of the graduates. When choosing a program for training, the integrated residents are most concerned with program atmosphere and the independent residents with total clinical volume. Concerns after training were thoracic and thoracoabdominal aneurysm procedures and business aspects: 40% to 50% integrated, and 60% fellows/graduates. Integrated trainees found periprocedural discussion the best feedback (79%), with 9% favoring written test review. Surgical training and vascular laboratory and venous training were judged "just right" by 87% and ∼71%, whereas business aspects needed more emphasis (65%-70%). Regarding the 80-hour workweek, 82% felt it prevented fatigue, and 24% thought it was detrimental to patient care. Independent program trainees also found periprocedural discussion the best feedback (71%), with 12% favoring written test review. Surgical training and vascular laboratory/venous training were "just right" by 87% and 60% to 70%, respectively, whereas business aspects needed more emphasis (∼65%-70%). Regarding the 80-hour workweek, 62% felt it was detrimental to patient care, and 42% felt it prevented fatigue. A supportive environment and adequate clinical volume will attract trainees to a program. For "an urgent need to know," the integrated trainees are especially turning to online texts rather than traditional textbooks, which suggests an opportunity for a shift in educational focus. Point-of-care is the best time for education and feedback, suggesting a continued need for dedicated faculty. The business side of training is underserved and should be addressed.
    Journal of vascular surgery: official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter 11/2011; 55(2):588-97; discussion 598. · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) is a common subtype of acute leukemia in children. PAX5 plays a central role in B-cell development and differentiation. In this study, we analyzed PAX5 expression levels, transactivation domain mutations/deletions in B-ALL patients (n=115) and healthy controls (n=10). Relative PAX5 mRNA levels were significantly increased in B-ALL patients (p<0.0001). PAX5 expression was also evaluated in three different B-ALL subgroups (pro B, Common B and Pre B ALL) and showed stage specific expression levels. Pro B (p=0.04) and pre B (p=0.04) patients showed significantly high PAX5 mRNA levels compared to stage specific controls. At least one deletion of exons 7-8 or 9 has been identified in the 41% of the patients. CD34 positivity in patients and presence of large deletions (Δ7/8/9) showed a significant correlation (p=0.05). None of our patients showed PAX5 point mutations, but two previously identified SNPs (rs3780135 and rs35469494) were detected. Our results support that PAX5 is a critical factor in B-ALL development and aberrant PAX5 expression especially at early stages may leads to leukemic transformation.
    Leukemia research 08/2011; 36(1):87-92. · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    11/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-307-753-6

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