CagA associates with c-Met, E-cadherin, and p120-catenin in a multiproteic complex that suppresses Helicobacter pylori-induced cell-invasive phenotype.
ABSTRACT Helicobacter pylori induces an invasive phenotype in gastric epithelial cells through a mechanism that requires the type IV secretion system and the phosphorylation of c-Met. The E-cadherin-catenin complex is a major component of the adherens junctions and functions as an invasion suppressor. We investigated whether E-cadherin has a role in H. pylori-induced, c-Met phosphorylation-dependent cell-invasive phenotype.
AGS cells that lack E-cadherin and that are invasive to H. pylori stimulation were transduced with E-cadherin and infected with H. pylori. NCI-N87 cells, which endogenously express E-cadherin, were also used for infection experiments.
E-cadherin was sufficient to suppress not only H. pylori-mediated cell-invasive phenotype but also c-Met and p120-catenin tyrosine phosphorylation. H. pylori infection led to increased interactions between E-cadherin and p120-catenin, c-Met and E-cadherin, and c-Met and p120-catenin. Using in vitro infection assays, we showed that H. pylori CagA interacts with E-cadherin, p120-catenin, and c-Met. Finally, using small interfering RNA, we showed that interactions between CagA and E-cadherin and between CagA and p120-catenin were established through c-Met.
We suggest that H. pylori alters the E-cadherin-catenin complex, leading to formation of a multiproteic complex composed of CagA, c-Met, E-cadherin, and p120-catenin. This complex abrogates c-Met and p120-catenin tyrosine phosphorylation and suppresses the cell-invasive phenotype induced by H. pylori.
- SourceAvailable from: Laurent Terradot[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Infection with the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is a risk factor for the development of gastric cancer. Pathogenic strains of H. pylori carry a type IV secretion system (T4SS) responsible for the injection of the oncoprotein CagA into host cells. H. pylori and its cag-T4SS exploit α5β1 integrin as a receptor for CagA translocation. Injected CagA localizes to the inner leaflet of the host cell membrane, where it hijacks host cell signaling and induces cytoskeleton reorganization. Here we describe the crystal structure of the N-terminal ∼100-kDa subdomain of CagA at 3.6 Å that unveils a unique combination of folds. The core domain of the protein consists of an extended single-layer β-sheet stabilized by two independent helical subdomains. The core is followed by a long helix that forms a four-helix helical bundle with the C-terminal domain. Mapping of conserved regions in a set of CagA sequences identified four conserved surface-exposed patches (CSP1-4), which represent putative hot-spots for protein-protein interactions. The proximal part of the single-layer β-sheet, covering CSP4, is involved in specific binding of CagA to the β1 integrin, as determined by yeast two-hybrid and in vivo competition assays in H. pylori cell-culture infection studies. These data provide a structural basis for the first step of CagA internalization into host cells and suggest that CagA uses a previously undescribed mechanism to bind β1 integrin to mediate its own translocation.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/2012; 109(36):14640-5. · 9.74 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This review is aimed at describing the main findings of 2011 on the aspects of Helicobacter pylori-related gastric disease linked to CagA and to T-regulatory cells (Treg), and on the attempts to improve the treatment efficacy. Recent findings presented in this review are as follows: CagA interferes with tumor suppression; tolerance protects from H. pylori-induced disease; modified H. pylori treatments/regimens can afford higher efficacy than the standard triple therapy. H. pylori colonizes the human stomach causing gastritis and severe diseases including gastric cancer. One of the most dangerous H. pylori factors, CagA, has been investigated in relation to gastric cancer: recently this relationship was strongly reinforced by the finding that CagA interacts with the tumor suppressor apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53-2 (ASPP2), promoting p53 degradation. Treg have been proposed to be involved in H. pylori infection and gastric disease: recent findings suggest that Treg-induced tolerance, rather than immunity to H. pylori, may result in less severe disease. The eradication rates achieved with the standard triple therapy dropped below 80%, mainly due to antibiotic resistance, while no vaccines are currently licensed; new treatments/regimens were subjected to clinical trials, in some cases strongly increasing the eradication rates.Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 06/2012; 25(3):337-44. · 4.87 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection provokes an inflammation of the gastric mucosa, at high risk for ulcer and cancer development. The most virulent strains harbor the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI) encoding a type 4 secretion system, which allows delivery of bacterial effectors into gastric epithelial cells, inducing pro-inflammatory responses and phenotypic alterations reminiscent of an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). This study characterizes EMT features in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells, and investigates their relationship with NF-κB activation. Cultured human gastric epithelial cell lines were challenged with a cagPAI+ H. pylori strain or cag isogenic mutants. Morphological changes, epithelial and mesenchymal gene expression and EMT-related microRNAs were studied. H. pylori up-regulates mesenchymal markers, including ZEB1. This transcription factor is prominently involved in the mesenchymal transition of infected cells and its up-regulation depends on cagPAI and NF-κB activation. ZEB1 expression and NF-κB activation were confirmed by immunohistochemistry in gastric mucosa from cagPAI+ H. pylori-infected patients. Gastric epithelial cell lines express high miR-200 levels, which are linked to ZEB1 in a reciprocal negative feedback loop and maintain their epithelial phenotype in non-infected conditions. However, miR-200b/c were increased upon infection, despite ZEB1 up-regulation and mesenchymal morphology. In the miR-200b-200a-429 cluster promoter, we identified a functional NF-κB binding site, recruiting NF-κB upon infection and trans-activating the microRNA cluster transcription. In conclusion, in gastric epithelial cells, cagPAI+ H. pylori activates NF-κB, which transactivates ZEB1, subsequently promoting mesenchymal transition. The unexpected N-FκB-dependent increase of miR-200 levels likely thwarts the irreversible loss of epithelial identity in that critical situation.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(4):e60315. · 3.73 Impact Factor