High-normal blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular disease.
ABSTRACT The guidelines of the Joint National Committee 7 from the USA on hypertension have unified the normal and high-normal blood pressure categories into a single entity termed ;prehypertension'. In contrast, The European Guidelines for the management of hypertension in 2007 considered ;prehypertensive' to be divided into normal and high-normal blood pressure. These patients with high-normal blood pressure or prehypertension might progress to hypertension over time. Previous studies have shown that high-normal blood pressure is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Western countries and Japan. The combination of high-normal blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors increases the risks of CVD. Recently, metabolic syndrome has also been shown to be a risk factor for CVD. In Japan, the association between metabolic syndrome and CVD was also found to be significant. The risks for CVD incidence were similar among participants who had the same number of components, regardless of the presence of abdominal obesity. In the Japanese guidelines for the management of hypertension published in 2009, patients are considered to be in a high-risk group if they have diabetes, chronic kidney disease, 3 or more risk factors, target organ damage or CVD, even if they have only high-normal blood pressure, and appropriate antihypertensive therapy should be initiated.
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ABSTRACT: Increasing living kidney donation mandates ongoing assessment of living donors for future health risks and revision of national health policy. Living kidney donors as reported to the Organ Procurement and Transplant Network database from January 1988 through December 2008 were reviewed for minor medical abnormalities, presence of donor health care coverage, and occurrence of surgical complications and death. At donation in 2008, 19.5% were obese, 2.0% had a history of hypertension, and 3.5% had proteinuria. The median estimated GFR of living donors was 92.2 ml/min. Additionally, 12.2% of donors were reported not to have health insurance at the time of donation. By racial background, 14.9% of black and 17.0% of Hispanic donors did not have insurance at donation. Perioperative complications included blood transfusion (0.4%), reoperation (0.5%), and vascular complications (0.2%). Death occurred within 30 days of donation in 0.03% donating between October 1999 and December 2008. During those same years, overall donor death was 2.8%. Almost one quarter of living donors have medical conditions that may be associated with future health risk. Close follow-up and a registry of these donors are necessary. Only then will we be able to inform prospective living donors most accurately of the real risk of donation on their health and survival. Additionally, these data speak to the need for a national discussion on the provision of health insurance for living donors.Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 10/2010; 5(10):1873-80. DOI:10.2215/CJN.01510210 · 5.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Few prospective studies have examined the combined impact of blood pressure (BP) categories and glucose abnormalities on the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general Asian population. This study aimed to examine the effect of the combined risks of these factors on the incidence of CVD in a general Japanese population. We studied 5321 Japanese individuals (aged 30-79 years), without CVD at baseline, who received follow-up for an average of 11.7 years. Serum fasting glucose categories were defined according to the 2003 American Diabetes Association recommendations. BP categories were defined by the 2009 Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension. The Cox proportional hazard ratios (HRs) for CVD according to the serum glucose and BP categories were calculated. In 62,036 person-years of follow-up, we documented 364 CVD events (198 stroke and 166 coronary heart disease (CHD)). Compared with normoglycemic subjects, the multivariable HRs (95% confidence intervals (CIs)) for CVD, CHD and stroke were 1.25 (1.00-1.58), 1.46 (1.04-2.04) and 1.11 (0.81-1.52), respectively, in individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), whereas these values were 2.13 (1.50-3.03), 2.28 (1.34-3.88) and 2.08 (1.29-3.35), respectively, in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). Compared with normoglycemic and optimal blood pressure (BP) subjects, increased risks of CVD were observed in the normoglycemic subjects with high-normal BP or hypertension, the IFG subjects with normal or higher BP, and the DM subjects regardless of BP category (P-value for interaction=0.046). In conclusion, the high-normal BP subjects in all glucose categories and the normal BP subjects with IFG showed increased risk of CVD in this Japanese population. Further investigation of larger cohorts of DM subjects should be conducted to better understand this phenomenon.Hypertension Research 10/2010; 33(12):1238-43. DOI:10.1038/hr.2010.174 · 2.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Prehypertension is a new category designated by the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC7) in 2003. Managing prehypertension with nonpharmacological intervention is possibly beneficial to the prevention of hypertension. In this study, we observed the effect of slow abdominal breathing combined with electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback training on blood pressure (BP) in prehypertensives and assessed the changes of heart rate variability (HRV) in order to find an optional intervention to prevent hypertension and acquire some experimental data to clarify the underlying neural mechanism. Twenty-two (22) postmenopausal women with prehypertension were randomly assigned to either the experiment group or the control group. The experiment group performed 10 sessions of slow abdominal breathing (six cycles/min) combined with frontal electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback training and daily home practice, while the control group only performed slow abdominal breathing and daily home practice. BP and HRV (including R-R interval and standard deviation of the normal-normal intervals [SDNN]) were measured. Participants with prehypertension could lower their systolic blood pressure (SBP) 8.4 mm Hg (p < 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 3.9 mm Hg (p < 0.05) using slow abdominal breathing combined with EMG biofeedback. The slow abdominal breathing also significantly decreased the SBP 4.3 mm Hg (p < 0.05), while it had no effect on the DBP (p > 0.05). Repeated-measures analyses showed that the biofeedback group + abdominal respiratory group (AB+BF) training was more effective in lowering the BP than the slow breathing (p < 0.05). Compared with the control group, the R-R interval increased significantly during the training in the AB+BF group (p < 0.05). The SDNN increased remarkably in both groups during the training (p < 0.05). Slow abdominal breathing combined with EMG biofeedback is an effective intervention to manage prehypertension. The possible mechanism is that slow abdominal breathing combined with EMG biofeedback could reduce sympathetic activity and meanwhile could enhance vagal activity.Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.) 10/2010; 16(10):1039-45. DOI:10.1089/acm.2009.0577 · 1.52 Impact Factor