High-normal blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular disease.
ABSTRACT The guidelines of the Joint National Committee 7 from the USA on hypertension have unified the normal and high-normal blood pressure categories into a single entity termed ;prehypertension'. In contrast, The European Guidelines for the management of hypertension in 2007 considered ;prehypertensive' to be divided into normal and high-normal blood pressure. These patients with high-normal blood pressure or prehypertension might progress to hypertension over time. Previous studies have shown that high-normal blood pressure is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Western countries and Japan. The combination of high-normal blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors increases the risks of CVD. Recently, metabolic syndrome has also been shown to be a risk factor for CVD. In Japan, the association between metabolic syndrome and CVD was also found to be significant. The risks for CVD incidence were similar among participants who had the same number of components, regardless of the presence of abdominal obesity. In the Japanese guidelines for the management of hypertension published in 2009, patients are considered to be in a high-risk group if they have diabetes, chronic kidney disease, 3 or more risk factors, target organ damage or CVD, even if they have only high-normal blood pressure, and appropriate antihypertensive therapy should be initiated.
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ABSTRACT: In 2003, the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure established a definition of a new category of BP levels called 'prehypertension'(preHT) that included individuals with a systolic BP of 120-139 mm Hg or a diastolic BP of 80-89 mm Hg. Patients with preHT were considered to be at increased risk for progression to hypertension and in individuals with BP in the range 130/80 to 139/89 mmHg the risk of developing hypertension was twice as high as in subjects with lower values. Still then there has been a large debate whether the introduction of preHT was based on evidence and as a consequence, it was fully justified. It has been suggested that the term prehypertension may in many subjects create anxiety and a need for unnecessary medical visits and examinations. This group of patients is also very heterogeneous and it has been pointed out that subdividing preHT group into individuals with normal BP and high normal BP would much better correspond to the continuum of BP risk for CV disease. Finally, despite some data suggesting the potential benefits of antihypertensive therapy in patients with preHT (high normal BP), there are still no hard evidences on the outcome reduction by giving antihypertensive drugs in these individuals.Current Vascular Pharmacology 04/2013; DOI:10.2174/15701611113119990126 · 2.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Faster eating is positively associated with body mass index in apparently healthy Japanese populations. In the present study, we examined the associations between self-reported rate of eating and visceral and subcutaneous fat areas in apparently healthy middle-aged Japanese men. We conducted a cross-sectional study of men who participated in health checkups in Japan. We removed participants who were diagnosed with metabolic diseases by the time of their health checkups. A total of 320 subjects aged 30-64 years (mean ± standard deviation, 47.4 ± 8.6 years) were selected. We compared the associations between rate of eating and various clinical parameters including visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), which was adjusted by age and lifestyle factors such as alcohol intake, energy intake, smoking, and physical activity. Multivariate logistic regression analyses (MLRA) were performed with visceral fat area (cm(2)) as the dependent variable and independent variables that included self-reported rate of eating. Tukey's multiple test following ANCOVA showed that self-reported rate of eating was positively associated with visceral fat area (cm(2)), but not with subcutaneous fat area (cm(2)). MLRA showed that the odds ratio of rate of eating for visceral fat area in tertile (T) 3 (>100 cm(2)) compared with T1 (≤70 cm(2)) was 1.99 (95 % CI 1.40-2.90, P < 0.01), and the association remained after adjustment for the subcutaneous fat area. The present results show that self-reported faster eating is positively associated with visceral fat accumulation, independently of subcutaneous fat accumulation, in apparently healthy Japanese men.European Journal of Nutrition 11/2013; 53(5). DOI:10.1007/s00394-013-0619-2 · 3.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adverse effects of antihypertensive therapy incur substantial cost. We evaluated whether any major classes of antihypertensive drugs were significantly associated with switching as a proxy measure of medication side effects in a large Chinese population in Hong Kong. From a clinical database, all adult patients newly prescribed an antihypertensive mono-therapy in Hong Kong between the years 2001-2003 and 2005 were included. Those who paid only one visit, died or stayed in the cohort for <180 days after the prescription, or prescribed more than one antihypertensive agent were excluded. The factors associated with switching at 180 days were evaluated by multivariate regression analyses. Age, gender, payment status, service type, district of residence, drug class, systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels were predictor variables. From 250,851 subjects, 159,813 patients were eligible. A total of 6,163 (3.9%) switched their medications within 180 days. Patients prescribed thiazide diuretics had the highest switching rate (5.6%), followed by ACEIs (4.5%), CCBs (4.4%) and beta-blockers (3.2%). When compared with ACEIs, patients on thiazide diuretics were significantly more likely to be switchers (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.49, 95% C.I. 1.31-1.69, p<0.001), whilst patients prescribed CCBs and beta-blockers were similarly likely to have switching. Following these patients up for 5 years showed that thiazide had the most marked increase in switching rate. The higher rates of switching among thiazide diuretics in this study might raise a probably greater incidence of their adverse effects in this Chinese population, yet other factors might also influence switching rates. Patients prescribed thiazide diuretics for longer term should be observed for their intolerability.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e53625. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0053625 · 3.53 Impact Factor