Article

Pharmacologic Options to Prevent Postoperative Ileus

Center for Drug Policy, Partner's Healthcare, Needham, MA 02494, USA.
Annals of Pharmacotherapy (Impact Factor: 2.92). 07/2009; 43(9):1474-85. DOI: 10.1345/aph.1M121
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To summarize the evidence on pharmacologic options in preventing postoperative ileus (POI).
The Cochrane Database of Reviews and OVID databases and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Web site were searched (1950-April 2009) using the term postoperative ileus.
Meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials were included for review. The FDA Web site was searched for clinical reviews and label information for drugs indicated for the prevention of POI.
Three meta-analyses, 2 on gum-chewing and 1 on alvimopan, and 18 clinical trials were identified. Only gum chewing and alvimopan were effective in preventing POI. Gum chewing reduced the time to first flatus and bowel movement (weighted mean difference 21h; p = 0.0006 and 33h; p = 0.0002, respectively). In one meta-analysis, gum chewing significantly reduced length of stay (LOS) by 2.4 days (p < 0.00001) but this was not replicated in the second meta-analysis. Alvimopan shortened the time to reach a composite endpoint of solid food intake, plus/minus flatus, and bowel movement (93 vs 105 h; p < 0.001). A higher incidence of myocardial infarction was observed in a 12-month study of alvimopan for the treatment of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction, but not in studies in patients undergoing bowel resection. Alvimopan decreased the time to written hospital discharge order (hazard ratio 1.35; p < 0.01), while the significance of a reduction in LOS (0.2-1.3 days) was not reported.
Gum chewing and alvimopan are effective in preventing POI, but given safety concerns and higher cost with alvimopan, gum chewing may be preferred.

2 Followers
 · 
125 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Postoperative ileus (POI) is an impairment of coordinated gastrointestinal (GI) motility that develops as a consequence of abdominal surgery and is a major factor contributing to patient morbidity and prolonged hospitalization. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 (5-HT₄) receptor agonists, which stimulate excitatory pathways, on a POI model. Materials and Methods: The experimental model of POI in guinea pigs was created by laparotomy, gentle manipulation of the cecum for 60 seconds, and closure by suture, all under anesthesia. Different degrees of restoration of GI transit were measured by the migration of charcoal. Colonic transit was indirectly assessed via measurement of fecal pellet output every hour for 5 hours after administration of various doses of mosapride, tegaserod, prucalopride, and 5-HT. Results: Charcoal transit assay showed that various 5-HT₄ receptor agonists can accelerate delayed upper GI transit in a dose-dependent manner. However, fecal pellet output assay suggested that only prucalopride had a significant effect in accelerating colonic motility in POI. Conclusion: Although mosapride, tegaserod, and prucalopride produce beneficial effects to hasten upper GI transit in the POI model, prucalopride administered orally restores lower GI transit as well as upper GI transit after operation in a conscious guinea pig. This drug may serve as a useful candidate for examination in a clinical trial for POI.
    Yonsei medical journal 07/2013; 54(4):845-853. DOI:10.3349/ymj.2013.54.4.845 · 1.26 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Our previous study has shown that mangiferin (MGF), a glucosylxanthone from Mangifera indica, exerts gastrointestinal prokinetic action involving a cholinergic mechanism. Postoperative ileus (POI) is a temporary disturbance in gastrointestinal motility following surgery, and intestinal inflammatory response plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of POI. The present study investigated to know whether MGF having anti-inflammatory and prokinetic actions can ameliorate the intestinal inflammation and impaired gastrointestinal transit seen in the mouse model of POI. Experimental POI was induced in adult male Swiss mice by standardized small intestinal manipulation (IM). Twenty-four hours later, gastrointestinal transit was assessed by charcoal transport. MGF was administered orally 1 h before the measurement of GIT. To evaluate the inflammatory response, plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and chemokine MCP-1, and the myeloperoxidase activity, nitrate/nitrite level, and histological changes of ileum were determined in mice treated or not with MGF. Experimental POI in mice was characterized by decreased gastrointestinal transit and marked intestinal and systemic inflammatory response. MGF treatment led to recovery of the delayed intestinal transit induced by IM. MGF in ileum significantly inhibited the myeloperoxidase activity, a marker of neutrophil infiltration, and nitrate/nitrite level and reduced the plasma levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and MCP-1 as well. MGF treatment ameliorates the intestinal inflammatory response and the impaired gastrointestinal motility in the mouse model of POI.
    Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00210-015-1095-4 · 2.36 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Postoperative ileus is common after colorectal surgery, and has a huge impact on hospital LOS. With the impeding cost crisis in the United States, safely reducing length of stay is essential. Chewing gum and pharmacological treatment with alvimopan are safe, simple tools to reduce postoperative ileus and its associated costs. Future research will determine if integrating these tools with laparoscopic procedures and enhanced recovery pathways is a best practice in colorectal surgery.
    Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery 09/2013; 26(3):186-190. DOI:10.1055/s-0033-1351137

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
13 Downloads
Available from
Jan 5, 2015