Mesenchymal stem cell-based therapy: a new paradigm in regenerative medicine.

Stem Cell and Gene Therapy Research Group, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi, India.
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.75). 08/2009; 13(11-12):4385-402. DOI: 10.1111/j.1582-4934.2009.00857.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), adherent fibroblastoid cells, present in bone marrow and many other tissues can be easily isolated and expanded in vitro. They are capable of differentiating into different cell types such as osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, cardiomyocytes, hepatocytes, endothelial cells and neuronal cells. Such immense plasticity coupled with their ability to modulate the activity of immune cells makes them attractive for stem cell-based therapy aimed at treating previously incurable disorders. Preclinical studies have reported successful use of MSCs for delivering therapeutic proteins and repairing defects in a variety of disease models. These studies highlighted the in vivo potential of MSCs and their ability to home to injury sites and modify the microenvironment by secreting paracrine factors to augment tissue repair. Their therapeutic applicability has been widened by genetic modification to enhance differentiation and tissue targeting, and use in tissue engineering. Clinical trials for diseases such as osteogenesis imperfecta, graft-versus-host disease and myocardial infarction have shown some promise, demonstrating the safe use of both allogeneic and autologous cells. However, lack of knowledge of MSC behaviour and responses in vitro and in vivo force the need for basic and animal studies before heading to the clinic. Contrasting reports on immunomodulatory functions and tumorigenicity along with issues such as mode of cell delivery, lack of specific marker, low survival and engraftment require urgent attention to harness the potential of MSC-based therapy in the near future.

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    ABSTRACT: Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a rare population of non-hematopoietic stem cells with multilineage potential, originally identified in the bone marrow. Due to the lack of a single specific marker, MSCs can be recognized and isolated by a series of features such as plastic adherence, a panel of surface markers, the clonogenic and the differentiation abilities. The recognized role of MSCs in the regulation of hemopoiesis, in cell-degeneration protection and in the homeostasis of mesodermal tissues through their differentiation properties, justifies the current interest in identifying the biochemical signals produced by MSCs and their active crosstalk in tissue environments. Only recently have extracellular nucleotides (eNTPs) and their metabolites been included among the molecular signals produced by MSCs. These molecules are active on both ionotropic and metabotropic receptors present in most cell types. MSCs possess a significant display of these receptors and of nucleotide processing ectoenzymes on their plasma membrane. Thus, from their niche, MSCs give a significant contribution to the complex signaling network of eNTPs and its derivatives. Recent studies have demonstrated the multifaceted aspects of eNTP metabolism and their signal transduction in MSCs and revealed important roles in specifying differentiation lineages and modulating MSC physiology and communication with other cells. This review discusses the roles of eNTPs, their receptors and ectoenzymes, and the relevance of the signaling network and MSC functions, and also focuses on the importance of this emerging area of interest for future MSC-based cell therapies.
    World journal of stem cells. 04/2014; 6(2):153-162.
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    ABSTRACT: Isolates of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) contain a mixed cell population of stem cells, multipotent and unipotent progenitors, and differentiated cells. It is speculated that the useful subpopulation for tissue engineering and cell therapy will be the multipotent progenitor cells or the stem cells. The colony forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) assay is an in vitro assay for clonogenicity, which is one property of the stem/progenitor cell population of MSCs. Our goal was to generate standard protocols that would permit the expansion and maintenance of CFU-F. Previous work reported that low plating density and/or exposure to 5% oxygen vs. 21% oxygen increased proliferation rate and enhanced expansion of MSCs. Here, we characterized the effect of both plating density and oxygen concentration on MSCs derived from Wharton's jelly (WJCs). We found that reducing oxygen concentration from 21% (room air) to 5% during expansion increased cell yield and maintained CFU-F, without affecting the expression of surface markers or the differentiation capacity of WJCs. In addition, reducing plating density from 100 cells/cm 2 to 10 cells/cm 2 increased CFU-F frequency. Therefore, plating density and oxygen concentration are two important variables that affect the expansion rate and frequency of CFU-F of WJCs. These results suggest that these two variables might be used to produce different input populations for tissue engineering or cellular therapy.
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects a part of the young population and has a strong impact upon quality of life. The underlying etiology is not known, and the existing treatments are not curative. Furthermore, a significant percentage of patients are refractory to therapy. In recent years there have been great advances in our knowledge of stem cells and their therapeutic applications. In this context, autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been used in application to severe refractory Crohn's disease (CD), with encouraging results. Allogenic HSCT would correct the genetic defects of the immune system, but is currently not accepted for the treatment of IBD because of its considerable risks. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have immune regulatory and regenerative properties, and low immunogenicity (both autologous and allogenic MSCs). Based on these properties, MSCs have been used via the systemic route in IBD with promising results, though it is still too soon to draw firm conclusions. Their local administration in perianal CD is the field where most progress has been made in recent years, with encouraging results. The next few years will be decisive for defining the role of such therapy in the management of IBD.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 02/2014; 20(5):1211-1227. · 2.55 Impact Factor


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May 28, 2014