Article

Mesenchymal stem cell-based therapy: a new paradigm in regenerative medicine.

Stem Cell and Gene Therapy Research Group, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi, India.
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.75). 08/2009; 13(11-12):4385-402. DOI: 10.1111/j.1582-4934.2009.00857.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), adherent fibroblastoid cells, present in bone marrow and many other tissues can be easily isolated and expanded in vitro. They are capable of differentiating into different cell types such as osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, cardiomyocytes, hepatocytes, endothelial cells and neuronal cells. Such immense plasticity coupled with their ability to modulate the activity of immune cells makes them attractive for stem cell-based therapy aimed at treating previously incurable disorders. Preclinical studies have reported successful use of MSCs for delivering therapeutic proteins and repairing defects in a variety of disease models. These studies highlighted the in vivo potential of MSCs and their ability to home to injury sites and modify the microenvironment by secreting paracrine factors to augment tissue repair. Their therapeutic applicability has been widened by genetic modification to enhance differentiation and tissue targeting, and use in tissue engineering. Clinical trials for diseases such as osteogenesis imperfecta, graft-versus-host disease and myocardial infarction have shown some promise, demonstrating the safe use of both allogeneic and autologous cells. However, lack of knowledge of MSC behaviour and responses in vitro and in vivo force the need for basic and animal studies before heading to the clinic. Contrasting reports on immunomodulatory functions and tumorigenicity along with issues such as mode of cell delivery, lack of specific marker, low survival and engraftment require urgent attention to harness the potential of MSC-based therapy in the near future.

2 Bookmarks
 · 
254 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Surgical removal is the mainstay for early lung cancer treatment and persistent air leaks represent one of the most common clinical complications after lung surgery. Adipose tissue transplantation has been proposed as a new strategy for regenerative therapy after breast cancer surgery; however its efficacy and safety of lung tissue healing after lung resections are unknown. The purpose of this study was to test the biological activity of adipose tissue to facilitate lung tissue healing and evaluate its effect on cancer cells growth, thus providing insight for a possible clinical application. Different in vitro cellular models were used to prove the potential biologic effect of autologous fat tissue (AFT) in repairing injured lung tissue, and in vivo xenograft models were used to evaluate tumor promoting potential of AFT on putative residual cancer cells. Treatment of both embryonic (WI-38) and adult lung fibroblasts and of normal bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC-KT) with AFT samples, harvested from subcutaneous tissue layer of 20 patients undergoing pulmonary metastasectomy, improved wound healing and cell proliferation indicating a trophic effect on both mesenchymal and epithelial cell types. Conversely AFT-conditioned medium was unable to stimulate in vitro proliferation of a lung adenocarcinoma reporter cellular system (A549). Moreover, co-injection of AFT and A549 cells in nude mice did not promote engraftment and progression of A549 cells. These preclinical findings provide preliminary evidence on the potential efficacy of AFT to accelerate lung tissue repair without undesired tumor promoting effects on putative residual cancer cells. J. Cell. Physiol. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 11/2012; · 4.22 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Diabetes, a disease resulting from loss of functional β cells, is globally an increasingly important condition. Based on the islet-differentiation ability of ductal epithelial cells and stimulating β cell proliferation ability of the Reg Iα gene, we aimed to establish an in vitro pancreatic β cell proliferation model for screening therapeutic drugs of diabetes in the future. Pancreatic ductal epithelial cells were isolated from male Wistar rats, and induced to differentiate into pancreatic β cells. Immunofluorescence staining assay, western blot, RT-PCR analysis, and dithizone staining were used to characterize the cells. Rat Reg Iα protein was transiently expressed in vitro by transfection of HEK 293 cells with the PCMV6-entry-REG Ia plasmid, and expression was verified by RT-PCR analysis, proliferation assay, and apoptosis assay. The pancreatic β cell proliferation model was further validated by a proliferation assay using differentiated pancreatic β cells treated with transfection supernatant. Finally, we have successfully established an in vitro pancreatic β cells proliferation model using transiently expressed rat Reg Iα protein and differentiated pancreatic β cells from pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. This model could be used as a platform to screen new drugs for islet neogenesis to cure diabetes, especially Chinese herbal drugs in the future.
    Cytotechnology 08/2013; · 1.32 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to spontaneously express cardiac proteins (CP) in vitro and to improve cardiac function after transplantation into experimentally induced acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, if these effects are the result of MSC cardiac differentiation or a mere cooperative cellular interaction is a matter of active debate. Additionally, the molecular mechanisms involved in CP expression by adult stem cells in vitro and its possible benefit for cardiac regeneration and improved function remain unclear. Here we show that although MSCs effectively engraft in AMI tissue, this engraftment leads to downregulation of CP expression in the implanted MSCs. We also found that pretransplantation cardiac specification of MSCs by exposure of the cells to transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) led to sustained MSC CP expression without altering engraftment efficiency. This increase in CP expression was associated with greater improvement in cardiac function 1 and 4 weeks after AMI with TGF-β1-pretreated MSCs. We discovered that the TGF-β1-enhanced cardiac potential of MSCs was mediated by downregulation of disabled-2 (Dab2) expression, suggesting an inverse correlation between Dab2 levels and CP expression/cardiac functional improvement after MSC engraftment. Our investigations further demonstrate that loss of Dab2 expression was sufficient to induce MSC CP expression and improve cardiac function after MSC engraftment after AMI. In summary, we define a novel role for the TGF-β1 receptor adaptor protein Dab2 as a regulator of CP expression in MSCs and its potential as a molecular target for the enhancement of stem cell cardiac specification for transplantation therapies.
    Stem cells and development 04/2011; 20(4):681-93. · 4.15 Impact Factor

Full-text

View
374 Downloads
Available from
May 28, 2014