Potential Health Benefits and Medical Cost Savings From Calorie, Sodium, and Saturated Fat Reductions in the American Diet

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American journal of health promotion: AJHP (Impact Factor: 2.37). 07/2009; 23(6):412-22. DOI: 10.4278/ajhp.080930-QUAN-226
Source: PubMed


Model the potential national health benefits and medical savings from reduced daily intake of calories, sodium, and saturated fat among the U.S. adult population.
Simulation based on secondary data analysis; quantitative research. Measures include the prevalence of overweight/obesity, uncontrolled hypertension, elevated cholesterol, and related chronic conditions under various hypothetical dietary changes.
United States.
Two hundred twenty-four million adults.
Findings come from a Nutrition Impact Model that combines information from national surveys, peer-reviewed studies, and government reports.
The simulation model predicts disease prevalence and medical expenditures under hypothetical dietary change scenarios.
We estimate that permanent 100-kcal reductions in daily intake would eliminate approximately 71.2 million cases of overweight/obesity and save $58 billion annually. Long-term sodium intake reductions of 400 mg/d in those with uncontrolled hypertension would eliminate about 1.5 million cases, saving $2.3 billion annually. Decreasing 5 g/d of saturated fat intake in those with elevated cholesterol would eliminate 3.9 million cases, saving $2.0 billion annually.
Modest to aggressive changes in diet can improve health and reduce annual national medical expenditures by $60 billion to $120 billion. One use of the model is to estimate the impact of dietary change related to setting public health priorities for dietary guidance. The findings here argue that emphasis on reduction in caloric intake should be the highest priority.

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    • "Dietary behaviors consistent with guidelines for healthy eating have the potential to produce substantial health and economic benefits. Previous research has demonstrated that, for example, increased consumption of dairy, as well as reduced intakes of calories, sodium, and saturated fat would facilitate considerable health and economic benefits ranging from US$2 to $58 billion annually (McCarron and Heaney, 2004; Dall et al., 2009; Bibbins- Domingo et al., 2010). From a functional food perspective, Gyles et al. (2010) showed that direct and indirect coronary heart disease (CHD)-related costs could be reduced by CAD$38 million to $2.5 billion if Canadians increased intakes of phystosterols. "
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    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are leading causes of mortality and two of the most costly diet-related ailments worldwide. Consumption of fiber-rich diets has been repeatedly associated with favorable impacts on these co-epidemics, however, the healthcare cost-related economic value of altered dietary fiber intakes remains poorly understood. In this study, we estimated the annual cost savings accruing to the Canadian healthcare system in association with reductions in T2D and CVD rates, separately, following increased intakes of dietary fiber by adults. A three-step cost-of-illness analysis was conducted to identify the percentage of individuals expected to consume fiber-rich diets in Canada, estimate increased fiber intakes in relation to T2D and CVD reduction rates, and independently assess the potential annual savings in healthcare costs associated with the reductions in rates of these two epidemics. The economic model employed a sensitivity analysis of four scenarios (universal, optimistic, pessimistic, and very pessimistic) to cover a range of assumptions within each step. Non-trivial healthcare and related savings of CAD$35.9-$718.8 million in T2D costs and CAD$64.8 million-$1.3 billion in CVD costs were calculated under a scenario where cereal fiber was used to increase current intakes of dietary fiber to the recommended levels of 38 g per day for men and 25 g per day for women. Each 1 g per day increase in fiber consumption resulted in annual CAD$2.6 to $51.1 million savings for T2D and $4.6 to $92.1 million savings for CVD. Findings of this analysis shed light on the economic value of optimal dietary fiber intakes. Strategies to increase consumers' general knowledge of the recommended intakes of dietary fiber, as part of healthy diet, and to facilitate stakeholder synergy are warranted to enable better management of healthcare and related costs associated with T2D and CVD in Canada.
    Frontiers in Pharmacology 08/2015; 6:167. DOI:10.3389/fphar.2015.00167 · 3.80 Impact Factor
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    • "Obesity and obesity-related disorders, are epidemic in Western countries, where cheap energy-dense food can be “found”, but not in really poor countries. Soft drinks are often a main course in such cheap energy menus [63–66]. On the other side, replacing sugar-sweetened beverages intake with water is associated with reductions in total calories and weight loss [67, 68]. "
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    ABSTRACT: This review focuses on the potential role of soft drinks, particularly the sugar component, in the pathogenesis of erectile dysfunction (ED). We analyzed the hypothetical link between metabolic disorders, induced by sweetened soft drinks overconsumption, and ED. High caloric intake, high refined-carbohydrates, and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) content and less satiety are main factors responsible for metabolic disorders contributing to ED development. Regular diet mistakes among human males, such as soft drink consumption, may lead to slow and asymptomatic progression of ED, finally resulting in full claimed manifestation of ED.
    Central European Journal of Urology 09/2011; 64(3):140-143. DOI:10.5173/ceju.2011.03.art8
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    • "Programs to reduce dietary salt are generally considered among the most cost effective interventions for improving health in low to middle-income countries and are strongly advocated (Campbell et al., 2010; Mohan et al., 2009; Murray et al., 2003; Penner et al., 2007; World Health Organization, 2007; World Health Organization Nutrition and Food Security Programme, 2003). They are considered to be highly cost effective if not cost saving in developed countries (Asaria et al., 2007; Dall et al., 2009; Campbell, Neal, & MacGregor, 2011). The large preventable burden of disease requires urgent action. "
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