Decreased chloride levels of cerebrospinal fluid in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
ABSTRACT Recent studies have suggested that the elevation of intracellular chloride contributes to excitotoxic cell death in motor neuron and can be related to the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We investigated whether chloride levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum were lower in ALS patients than in control patients with other neurological diseases (OND). We also examined the relationship between chloride levels and clinical ALS phenotypes. We measured chloride levels (CSF and serum) in 27 ALS patients and 33 age- and gender-matched OND controls admitted to our hospital for diagnosis. The CSF chloride levels were lower in ALS patients (117 [range 102-130] mmol/L) than in OND controls (126 [range 114-134] mmol/L) (P<0.0001). However, no significant difference was found in their serum chloride levels (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in CSF chloride levels among the sub-groups of ALS patients classified according to their age, gender, duration of illness, clinical state and type of onset (P>0.05). CSF chloride levels already significantly decreased in ALS patients at the time of diagnosis. We conclude that the elevation of intracellular chloride would cause the reduction of chloride in CSF and be related to the pathogenesis of ALS.
Article: Recent advances in CSF physiology.Anesthesiology 07/1975; 42(6):708-730. · 5.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the selective degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord, brainstem and cerebral cortex. In this study we have analysed the electrophysiological properties of GABA(A) receptors and GABA(A) alpha1 and alpha2 subunits expression in spinal motor neurons in culture obtained from a genetic model of ALS (G93A) and compared with transgenic wild type SOD1 (SOD1) and their corresponding non transgenic litter mates (Control). Although excitotoxic motor neuron death has been extensively studied in relation to Ca(2+)-dependent processes, strong evidence indicates that excitotoxic cell death is also remarkably dependent on Cl(-) ions and on GABA(A) receptor activation. In this study we have analysed the electrophysiological properties of GABA(A) receptors and the expression of GABA(A)alpha(1) and alpha(2) subunits in cultured motor neurons obtained from a genetic model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (G93A) and compared them with transgenic wild-type Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase and their corresponding non-transgenic littermates (Control). In all tested motor neurons, the application of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) (0.5-100 mum) evoked an inward current that was reversibly blocked by bicuculline (100 mum), thus indicating that it was mediated by the activation of GABA(A) receptors. Our results indicate that the current density at high GABA concentrations is similar in control, Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase and G93A motor neurons. However, the dose-response curve significantly shifted toward lower concentration values in G93A motor neurons and the extent of desensitization also increased in these neurons. Finally, multiplex single-cell real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence revealed that the amount of GABA(A)alpha(1) subunit was significantly increased in G93A motor neurons, whereas the levels of alpha(2) subunit were unchanged. These data show that the functionality and expression of GABA(A) receptors are altered in G93A motor neurons inducing a higher Cl(-) influx into the cell with a possible consequent neuronal excitotoxicity acceleration.European Journal of Neuroscience 11/2008; 28(7):1275-85. · 3.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: AMPA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of stroke, neurotrauma, epilepsy, and many neurodegenerative diseases such as motoneuron disease. We studied the role of Cl- in AMPA receptor-mediated Ca2+-dependent excitotoxicity in cultured rat spinal motoneurons. Using the gramicidin perforated patch-clamp technique, the intracellular Cl- concentration could be calculated from the reversal potential of the GABA-induced current. The membrane depolarization caused by AMPA receptor stimulation resulted in Cl- influx through 5-nitro-2(3-phenylpropyl-amino) benzoic acid- and niflumic acid-sensitive Cl- channels. Cl- influx during AMPA receptor stimulation aggravated excitotoxic motoneuron death by two mechanisms: an increase of AMPA receptor conductance and an elevation of the Ca2+ driving force through a partial repolarization. The Cl- influx during AMPA receptor stimulation was enhanced by coadministration of GABA. This resulted in an increased Ca2+ influx and an enhanced cell death, suggesting that concomitant GABAergic stimulation may aggravate excitotoxic motoneuron death.Journal of Neuroscience 07/2003; 23(12):4942-50. · 6.91 Impact Factor