Longitudinal Analysis of Abstinence-Specific Social Support and Smoking Cessation
ABSTRACT (1) To replicate previous research finding that abstinence-specific social support during the active phase of quitting predicts short- and long-term smoking cessation treatment outcome. (2) To describe time-related changes in abstinence-specific support, including how support provided during middle and later phases of the quitting process is associated with treatment outcome.
Combined data from three randomized clinical trials of smoking cessation treatment (N = 739) were analyzed using logistic regression and analysis of variance.
Measures included the Partner Interaction Questionnaire (PIQ; Cohen & Lichtenstein, 1990), a measure of smoking-related social support, and smoking status according to 7-day point-prevalence abstinence.
Longitudinal analyses found that positive support peaked at week 12, decreasing thereafter. Positive support provided after week 12 did not differentiate between those who never quit smoking, those who quit and relapsed, and those who maintained abstinence. In contrast, negative support was monotonic and was useful at follow-up points for distinguishing between outcome groups.
These results suggest that positive and negative support are both important factors in the early phase of quitting, but it is the continued minimization of negative support that best predicts maintenance of nonsmoking.
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ABSTRACT: With marijuana use increasing among American adolescents, better understanding of the factors associated with decreasing use and quitting can help inform cessation efforts. This study evaluates a range of neighborhood, family, peer network, and individual factors as predictors of marijuana use, change, and non-use over one year, and cessation over six years.Drug and Alcohol Dependence 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.08.019 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Social support receipt from one's partner is assumed to be beneficial for successful smoking cessation. However, support receipt can have costs. Recent research suggests that the most effective support is unnoticed by the receiver (i.e., invisible). Therefore, this study examined the association between everyday levels of dyadic invisible emotional and instrumental support, daily negative affect, and daily smoking after a self-set quit attempt in smoker-non-smoker couples. Overall, 100 smokers (72.0% men, mean age M = 40.48, SD = 9.82) and their non-smoking partners completed electronic diaries from a self-set quit date on for 22 consecutive days, reporting daily invisible emotional and instrumental social support, daily negative affect, and daily smoking. Same-day multilevel analyses showed that at the between-person level, higher individual mean levels of invisible emotional and instrumental support were associated with less daily negative affect. In contrast to our assumption, more receipt of invisible emotional and instrumental support was related to more daily cigarettes smoked. The findings are in line with previous results, indicating invisible support to have beneficial relations with affect. However, results emphasize the need for further prospective daily diary approaches for understanding the dynamics of invisible support on smoking cessation. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Social support receipt from a close other has proven to have emotional costs. According to current studies, the most effective social support is unnoticed by the receiver (i.e., invisible). There is empirical evidence for beneficial effects of invisible social support on affective well-being. What does this study add? Confirming benefits of invisible social support for negative affect in a health behaviour change setting Providing first evidence for detrimental effects of invisible social support on smoking. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.British Journal of Health Psychology 03/2015; DOI:10.1111/bjhp.12135 · 2.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background This study aims to identify predictors of smoking initiation and nicotine dependence (ND) to develop a comprehensive risk-factor model based on Kendler's development model for major depression. Methods Data were drawn from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), Wave 2 (n = 34,653). Risk factors were divided into 5 developmental tiers according to Kendler's model (childhood, early adolescence, late adolescence, adulthood, past-year). Hierarchical logistic regression models were built to predict the risk of smoking initiation and the risk of ND, given initiation. The continuation ratio (CR) was tested by ordinal logistic regression to examine whether the impact of the predictors was the same on smoking initiation or ND. Results The final models highlighted the importance of different tiers for each outcome. The CR identified substantial differences in the predictors of smoking initiation versus ND. Childhood tier appears to be more determinant for smoking initiation while the effect of more distal tiers (i.e. childhood and early adolescence) was tempered by more proximal ones (i.e. late adolescence, adulthood and past-year) in ND, with few sex differences. Conclusions The differential effect of some predictors on each outcome shows the complexity of pathways from smoking initiation to ND. While some risk factors may be shared, others impact only at one stage or have even an inverse effect. An adaptation of Kendler's developmental model for major depression showed high predictive power for smoking initiation and ND.Drug and Alcohol Dependence 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.09.002 · 3.28 Impact Factor