Article

High-resolution mapping and analysis of copy number variations in the human genome: a data resource for clinical and research applications.

Division of Genetics, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.
Genome Research (Impact Factor: 13.85). 08/2009; 19(9):1682-90. DOI: 10.1101/gr.083501.108
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We present a database of copy number variations (CNVs) detected in 2026 disease-free individuals, using high-density, SNP-based oligonucleotide microarrays. This large cohort, comprised mainly of Caucasians (65.2%) and African-Americans (34.2%), was analyzed for CNVs in a single study using a uniform array platform and computational process. We have catalogued and characterized 54,462 individual CNVs, 77.8% of which were identified in multiple unrelated individuals. These nonunique CNVs mapped to 3272 distinct regions of genomic variation spanning 5.9% of the genome; 51.5% of these were previously unreported, and >85% are rare. Our annotation and analysis confirmed and extended previously reported correlations between CNVs and several genomic features such as repetitive DNA elements, segmental duplications, and genes. We demonstrate the utility of this data set in distinguishing CNVs with pathologic significance from normal variants. Together, this analysis and annotation provides a useful resource to assist with the assessment of CNVs in the contexts of human variation, disease susceptibility, and clinical molecular diagnostics.

Full-text

Available from: Frederick Otieno, Apr 18, 2015
1 Follower
 · 
228 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The 19q13.11 microdeletion syndrome (MIM613026) is a clinically recognisable condition in which a 324-kb minimal overlapping critical region has been recently described. However, genes not included within this region, such as WTIP and UBA2, have been proposed to contribute to the clinical characteristics observed in patients. Using cytogenetic techniques, single nucleotide polymorphism arrays, and the quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we identified a novel case with a 2.49-Mb deletion derived from a de novo chromosomal rearrangement. Based on a review of the literature, we support the notion that UBA2 haploinsufficiency could contribute to the phenotype of this rare genomic disorder. UBA2 belongs to a protein complex with sumoylation activity, and several transcription factors, hormone receptors, and signalling proteins related to brain and sexual development are regulated by this post-translational modification. Additional clinical reports and further research on UBA2 molecular function are warranted. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13039-014-0061-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Molecular Cytogenetics 12/2014; 7(1):61. DOI:10.1186/s13039-014-0061-z · 2.66 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Interpreting the genomic and phenotypic consequences of copy-number variation (CNV) is essential to understanding the etiology of genetic disorders. Whereas deletion CNVs lead obviously to haploinsufficiency, duplications might cause disease through triplosensitivity, gene disruption, or gene fusion at breakpoints. The mutational spectrum of duplications has been studied at certain loci, and in some cases these copy-number gains are complex chromosome rearrangements involving triplications and/or inversions. However, the organization of clinically relevant duplications throughout the genome has yet to be investigated on a large scale. Here we fine-mapped 184 germline duplications (14.7 kb-25.3 Mb; median 532 kb) ascertained from individuals referred for diagnostic cytogenetics testing. We performed next-generation sequencing (NGS) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to sequence 130 breakpoints from 112 subjects with 119 CNVs and found that most (83%) were tandem duplications in direct orientation. The remainder were triplications embedded within duplications (8.4%), adjacent duplications (4.2%), insertional translocations (2.5%), or other complex rearrangements (1.7%). Moreover, we predicted six in-frame fusion genes at sequenced duplication breakpoints; four gene fusions were formed by tandem duplications, one by two interconnected duplications, and one by duplication inserted at another locus. These unique fusion genes could be related to clinical phenotypes and warrant further study. Although most duplications are positioned head-to-tail adjacent to the original locus, those that are inverted, triplicated, or inserted can disrupt or fuse genes in a manner that might not be predicted by conventional copy-number assays. Therefore, interpreting the genetic consequences of duplication CNVs requires breakpoint-level analysis. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.ajhg.2014.12.017 · 10.99 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Readily-accessible and standardised capture of genotypic variation has revolutionised our understanding of the genetic contribution to disease. Unfortunately, the corresponding systematic capture of patient phenotypic variation needed to fully interpret the impact of genetic variation has lagged far behind. Exploiting deep and systematic phenotyping of a cohort of 197 patients presenting with heterogeneous developmental disorders and whose genomes harbour de novo CNVs, we systematically applied a range of commonly-used functional genomics approaches to identify the underlying molecular perturbations and their phenotypic impact. Grouping patients into 408 non-exclusive patient-phenotype groups, we identified a functional association amongst the genes disrupted in 209 (51%) groups. We find evidence for a significant number of molecular interactions amongst the association-contributing genes, including a single highly-interconnected network disrupted in 20% of patients with intellectual disability, and show using microcephaly how these molecular networks can be used as baits to identify additional members whose genes are variant in other patients with the same phenotype. Exploiting the systematic phenotyping of this cohort, we observe phenotypic concordance amongst patients whose variant genes contribute to the same functional association but note that (i) this relationship shows significant variation across the different approaches used to infer a commonly perturbed molecular pathway, and (ii) that the phenotypic similarities detected amongst patients who share the same inferred pathway perturbation result from these patients sharing many distinct phenotypes, rather than sharing a more specific phenotype, inferring that these pathways are best characterized by their pleiotropic effects.
    PLoS Genetics 03/2015; 11(3):e1005012. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1005012 · 8.17 Impact Factor