Inflammatory cytokines that act through glycoprotein (gp)130 are elevated in the heart after myocardial infarction and in heart failure. These cytokines are potent regulators of neurotransmitter and neuropeptide production in sympathetic neurons but are also important for the survival of cardiac myocytes after damage to the heart. To examine the effect of gp130 cytokines on cardiac nerves, we used gp130(DBH-Cre/lox) mice, which have a selective deletion of the gp130 cytokine receptor in neurons expressing dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH). Basal sympathetic parameters, including norepinephrine (NE) content, tyrosine hydroxylase expression, NE transporter expression, and sympathetic innervation density, appeared normal in gp130(DBH-Cre/lox) compared with wild-type mice. Likewise, basal cardiovascular parameters measured under isoflurane anesthesia were similar in both genotypes, including mean arterial pressure, left ventricular peak systolic pressure, dP/dt(max), and dP/dt(min). However, pharmacological interventions revealed an autonomic imbalance in gp130(DBH-Cre/lox) mice that was correlated with an increased incidence of premature ventricular complexes after reperfusion. Stimulation of NE release with tyramine and infusion of the beta-agonist dobutamine revealed blunted adrenergic transmission that correlated with decreased beta-receptor expression in gp130(DBH-Cre/lox) hearts. Due to the developmental expression of the DBH-Cre transgene in parasympathetic ganglia, gp130 was eliminated. Cholinergic transmission was impaired in gp130(DBH-Cre/lox) hearts due to decreased parasympathetic drive, but tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry in the brain stem revealed that catecholaminergic nuclei appeared grossly normal. Thus, the apparently normal basal parameters in gp130(DBH-Cre/lox) mice mask an autonomic imbalance that includes alterations in sympathetic and parasympathetic transmission.
"The loss of peri-infarct TH is triggered by cytokines, and is absent in mice whose sympathetic neurons lack the gp130 receptor (Parrish et al. 2009a). However, peri-infarct NE levels are similar in wild type and gp130 knockout mice (Parrish et al. 2009a), despite the depletion of TH in wild type neurons. These data suggest the possibility that inflammatory cytokines influence TH enzyme activity in addition to their effect on enzyme levels. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: J. Neurochem. (2012) 121, 700–704.
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in norepinephrine synthesis, and its expression and activity are regulated by many factors in sympathetic neurons. Cytokines that act through gp130, such as ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) decrease norepinephrine production in sympathetic neurons by suppressing TH mRNA and stimulating degradation of TH protein, leading to the loss of enzyme. Their effect on the activity of TH is unclear, but recent in vivo observations suggest that cytokines may stimulate TH activity. We investigated this issue by quantifying TH protein levels and activity in cultured sympathetic neurons. We also examined the state of TH phosphorylation on serine 31 and 40, sites known to affect TH activity and degradation. We found that CNTF, acting through gp130, stimulated the rate of l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine production while at the same time decreasing TH enzyme levels, thereby increasing the specific activity of the enzyme. We also found that phosphorylation of TH on Ser31 was increased, and phosphorylation on Ser40 was decreased, after four days of CNTF exposure. Our data are consistent with previous findings that Ser31 phosphorylation stimulates TH activity, whereas Ser40 phosphorylation can target TH for proteasomal degradation.
Journal of Neurochemistry 02/2012; 121(5):700-4. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2012.07712.x · 4.28 Impact Factor
"NE levels were measured by HPLC with electrochemical detection as described previously (Parrish et al., 2009a). Hearts were excised and cut in 1–2 mm transverse cross sections, excluding the area spanning the LAD ligation. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac sympathetic neurons stimulate heart rate and the force of contraction through release of norepinephrine. Nerve growth factor modulates sympathetic transmission through activation of TrkA and p75NTR. Nerve growth factor plays an important role in post-infarct sympathetic remodeling. We used mice lacking p75NTR to examine the effect of altered nerve growth factor signaling on sympathetic neuropeptide expression, cardiac norepinephrine, and ventricular function after myocardial infarction. Infarct size was similar in wildtype and p75NTR-/- mice after ischemia-reperfusion surgery. Likewise, mRNAs encoding vasoactive intestinal peptide, galanin, and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptides were identical in wildtype and p75NTR-/- cardiac sympathetic neurons, as was expression of the TrkA neurotrophin receptor. Norepinephrine content was elevated in the base of the p75NTR-/- ventricle compared to wildtype, but levels were identical below the site of occlusion. Left ventricular pressure, dP/dt(MAX), and dP/dt(MIN) were measured under isoflurane anesthesia 3 and 7 days after surgery. Ventricular pressure decreased significantly 3 days after infarction, and deficits in dP/dt(MAX) were revealed by stimulating beta receptors with dobutamine and release of endogenous norepinephrine with tyramine. dP/dt(MIN) was not altered by genotype or surgical group. Few differences were observed between genotypes 3 days after surgery, in contrast to low pressure and dP/dt(MAX) previously reported in control p75NTR-/- animals. Seven days after surgery ventricular pressure and dP/dt(MAX) were significantly lower in p75NTR-/- hearts compared to WT hearts. Thus, the lack of p75NTR did not enhance cardiac function after myocardial infarction.
"WT sham mice consistently exhibited larger changes in LVP, dP/dt MAX , and dP/dt MIN than gp130 KO shams. This is consistent with our observation of autonomic imbalance in neuronal gp130 KO control mice (Parrish et al., 2009). The other consistent functional change was a decrease in functional parameters three days after MI in the wild type mice. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myocardial infarction causes a heterogeneity of noradrenergic transmission that contributes to the development of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Ischaemia-induced alterations in sympathetic transmission include regional variations in cardiac noradrenaline (NA) and in tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in NA synthesis. Inflammatory cytokines that act through gp130 are elevated in the heart after myocardial infarction. These cytokines decrease expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in sympathetic neurons, and indirect evidence suggests that they contribute to the local depletion of tyrosine hydroxylase in the damaged left ventricle. However, gp130 cytokines are also important for the survival of cardiac myocytes following damage to the heart. To examine the effect of cytokines on tyrosine hydroxylase and NA content in cardiac nerves we used gp130(DBH-Cre/lox) mice, which have a deletion of the gp130 receptor in neurons expressing dopamine beta-hydroxylase. The absence of neuronal gp130 prevented the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase in cardiac sympathetic nerves innervating the left ventricle 1 week after ischaemia-reperfusion compared with wild-type C57BL/6J mice. Surprisingly, restoration of tyrosine hydroxylase in the damaged ventricle did not return neuronal NA content to normal levels. Noradrenaline uptake into cardiac nerves was significantly lower in gp130 knockout mice, contributing to the lack of neuronal NA stores. There were no significant differences in left ventricular peak systolic pressure, dP/dt(max) or dP/dt(min) between the two genotypes after myocardial infarction, but ganglionic blockade revealed differences in autonomic tone between the genotypes. Stimulation of the heart with dobutamine or release of endogenous NA with tyramine generated similar responses in both genotypes. Thus, the removal of gp130 from sympathetic neurons prevents the post-infarct depletion of tyrosine hydroxylase in the left ventricle, but does not alter NA content or cardiac function.
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