Absence of gp130 in dopamine beta-hydroxylase-expressing neurons leads to autonomic imbalance and increased reperfusion arrhythmias.
ABSTRACT Inflammatory cytokines that act through glycoprotein (gp)130 are elevated in the heart after myocardial infarction and in heart failure. These cytokines are potent regulators of neurotransmitter and neuropeptide production in sympathetic neurons but are also important for the survival of cardiac myocytes after damage to the heart. To examine the effect of gp130 cytokines on cardiac nerves, we used gp130(DBH-Cre/lox) mice, which have a selective deletion of the gp130 cytokine receptor in neurons expressing dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH). Basal sympathetic parameters, including norepinephrine (NE) content, tyrosine hydroxylase expression, NE transporter expression, and sympathetic innervation density, appeared normal in gp130(DBH-Cre/lox) compared with wild-type mice. Likewise, basal cardiovascular parameters measured under isoflurane anesthesia were similar in both genotypes, including mean arterial pressure, left ventricular peak systolic pressure, dP/dt(max), and dP/dt(min). However, pharmacological interventions revealed an autonomic imbalance in gp130(DBH-Cre/lox) mice that was correlated with an increased incidence of premature ventricular complexes after reperfusion. Stimulation of NE release with tyramine and infusion of the beta-agonist dobutamine revealed blunted adrenergic transmission that correlated with decreased beta-receptor expression in gp130(DBH-Cre/lox) hearts. Due to the developmental expression of the DBH-Cre transgene in parasympathetic ganglia, gp130 was eliminated. Cholinergic transmission was impaired in gp130(DBH-Cre/lox) hearts due to decreased parasympathetic drive, but tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry in the brain stem revealed that catecholaminergic nuclei appeared grossly normal. Thus, the apparently normal basal parameters in gp130(DBH-Cre/lox) mice mask an autonomic imbalance that includes alterations in sympathetic and parasympathetic transmission.
Article: Ciliary neurotrophic factor induces cholinergic differentiation of rat sympathetic neurons in culture.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) influences the levels of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in cultures of dissociated sympathetic neurons from newborn rats. In the presence of CNTF both the total and specific activity of ChAT was increased 7 d after culture by 15- and 18-fold, respectively, as compared to cultures kept in the absence of CNTF. Between 3 and 21 d in culture in the presence of CNTF the total ChAT activity increased by a factor of greater than 100. Immunotitration demonstrated that the elevated ChAT levels were due to an increased number of enzyme molecules. In contrast to the increase in ChAT levels, the total and specific activity levels of TH were decreased by 42 and 36%, respectively, after 7 d in culture. Half-maximal effects for both ChAT increase and TH decrease were obtained at CNTF concentrations of approximately 0.6 ng and maximal levels were reached at 1 ng of CNTF per milliliter of medium. The effect of CNTF on TH and ChAT levels were seen in serum-containing medium as well as in serum-free medium. CNTF was shown to have only a small effect on the long-term survival of rat sympathetic neurons. We therefore concluded that the effects of CNTF on ChAT and TH are not due to selective survival of cells that acquire cholinergic traits in vitro, but are rather due to the induction of cholinergic differentiation of noradrenergic sympathetic neurons.The Journal of Cell Biology 06/1989; 108(5):1807-16. · 10.26 Impact Factor
Article: Target-dependent specification of the neurotransmitter phenotype: cholinergic differentiation of sympathetic neurons is mediated in vivo by gp 130 signaling.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Sympathetic neurons are generated through a succession of differentiation steps that initially lead to noradrenergic neurons innervating different peripheral target tissues. Specific targets, like sweat glands in rodent footpads, induce a change from noradrenergic to cholinergic transmitter phenotype. Here, we show that cytokines acting through the gp 130 receptor are present in sweat glands. Selective elimination of the gp 130 receptor in sympathetic neurons prevents the acquisition of cholinergic and peptidergic features (VAChT, ChT1, VIP) without affecting other properties of sweat gland innervation. The vast majority of cholinergic neurons in the stellate ganglion, generated postnatally, are absent in gp 130-deficient mice. These results demonstrate an essential role of gp 130-signaling in the target-dependent specification of the cholinergic neurotransmitter phenotype.Development 02/2006; 133(1):141-50. · 6.60 Impact Factor
Article: Tradition and experiment in first millennium a.d. glass production--the emergence of early Islamic glass technology in late antiquity.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Following a brief history of analytical research into ancient glasses, the emergence of early Islamic glasses in the Middle East in late antiquity is discussed. Data sets for Roman and Byzantine glasses are compared to those of the early Islamic period. This is a rare period of technological transition when responses to the "drying up" of the traditional mineral alkali source resulted in experimentation, which can be demonstrated analytically.Accounts of Chemical Research 09/2002; 35(8):594-602. · 21.64 Impact Factor