Altered hepatic mRNA expression of immune response and apoptosis-associated genes after acute and chronic psychological stress in mice.
ABSTRACT Using a combination of transcriptional profiling and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA, www.ingenuity.com) we investigated acute and chronic psychological stress induced alterations of hepatic gene expression of BALB/c mice. Already after a 2-h single stress session, up-regulation of several LPS and glucocorticoid-sensitive immune response genes and markers related to oxidative stress and apoptotic processes were observed. Support for the existence of oxidative stress was gained by measuring increased protein carbonylation, but no alterations of immune responsiveness or cell death were measured in mice after acute stress compared to the control group. When animals were repeatedly stressed during 4.5-days, we found reduced transcription of antigen presentation molecules, altered mRNA levels of immune cell signaling mediators and persisting high expression of apoptosis-related genes. These alterations were associated with a measurable immune suppression characterized by a reduced ability to clear experimental Salmonella typhimurium infection from the liver and a heightened hepatocyte apoptosis. Moreover, genes associated with anti-oxidative functions and regenerative processes were induced in the hepatic tissue of chronically stressed mice. These findings indicate that modulation of the immune response and of apoptosis-related genes is initiated already during a single acute stress exposure. However, immune suppression will only manifest in repeatedly stressed mice which additionally show induction of protective and liver regenerative genes to prevent further hepatocyte damage.
The Veterinary record. 09/2012; 171(9):215-6.
Article: Different stress-related phenotypes of BALB/c mice from in-house or vendor: alterations of the sympathetic and HPA axis responsiveness.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Laboratory routine procedures such as handling, injection, gavage or transportation are stressful events which may influence physiological parameters of laboratory animals and may interfere with the interpretation of the experimental results. Here, we investigated if female BALB/c mice derived from in-house breeding and BALB/c mice from a vendor which were shipped during their juvenile life differ in their HPA axis activity and stress responsiveness in adulthood. We show that already transferring the home cage to another room is a stressful event which causes an increased HPA axis activation for at least 24 hours as well as a loss of circulating lymphocytes which normalizes during a few days after transportation. However and important for the interpretation of experimental data, commercially available strain-, age- and gender-matched animals that were shipped over-night showed elevated glucocorticoid levels for up to three weeks after shipment, indicating a heightened HPA axis activation and they gained less body weight during adolescence. Four weeks after shipment, these vendor-derived mice showed increased corticosterone levels at 45-min after intraperitoneal ACTH challenge but, unexpectedly, no acute stress-induced glucocorticoid release. Surprisingly, activation of monoaminergic pathways were identified to inhibit the central nervous HPA axis activation in the vendor-derived, shipped animals since depletion of monoamines by reserpine treatment could restore the stress-induced HPA axis response during acute stress. In-house bred and vendor-derived BALB/c mice show a different stress-induced HPA axis response in adulthood which seems to be associated with different central monoaminergic pathway activity. The stress of shipment itself and/or differences in raising conditions, therefore, can cause the development of different stress response phenotypes which needs to be taken into account when interpreting experimental data.BMC Physiology 03/2010; 10:2.
Article: Acute phase proteins in animals.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Acute phase proteins (APP) were first identified in the early 1900s as early reactants to infectious disease. They are now understood to be an integral part of the acute phase response (APR) which is the cornerstone of innate immunity. APP have been shown to be valuable biomarkers as increases can occur with inflammation, infection, neoplasia, stress, and trauma. All animals--from fish to mammals--have demonstrable APP, but the type of major APP differs by species. While the primary application of these proteins in a clinical setting is prognostication, studies in animals have demonstrated relevance to diagnosis and detection and monitoring for subclinical disease. APP have been well documented in laboratory, companion, and large animals. With the advent of standardized and automated assays, these biomarkers are available for use in all fields of veterinary medicine as well as basic and clinical research.Progress in molecular biology and translational science 01/2012; 105:113-50.