EBV-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a well-recognized complication following solid organ transplantation and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) using bone marrow or peripheral blood as stem cell sources, but rarely reported in umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT). We report two cases in unrelated UCBT setting and added the following new information to the literature: (i) EBV-related PTLD can be presented late in recipients of unrelated UCBT; (ii) in contrast to reported literatures that PTLD is a serious complication with unfavorable outcome, especially in monomorphic form, our cases showed that the clinical course may be relatively benign if treatment is initiated promptly.
"Allogeneic HCT remained associated with significant risks of severe graft vs. host disease and prolonged immune deficiency and a high mortality risk [32, 65]. Transplantation of autologous HSCs genetically modified to express the missing ALD protein may circumvent these severe complications (Fig. 2). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microglia have long been the focus of much attention due to their strong proliferative response (microgliosis) to essentially any kind of damage to the CNS. More recently, we reached the realization that these cells play specific roles in determining progression and outcomes of essentially all CNS disease. Thus, microglia has ceased to be viewed as an accessory to underlying pathologies and has now taken center stage as a therapeutic target. Here, we review how our understanding of microglia's involvement in promoting or limiting the pathogenesis of diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) and lysosomal storage diseases (LSD) has changed over time. While strategies to suppress the deleterious and promote the virtuous functions of microglia will undoubtedly be forthcoming, replacement of these cells has already proven its usefulness in a clinical setting. Over the past few years, we have reached the realization that microglia have a developmental origin that is distinct from that of bone marrow-derived myelomonocytic cells. Nevertheless, microglia can be replaced, in specific situations, by the progeny of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), pointing to a strategy to engineer the CNS environment through the transplantation of modified HSCs. Thus, microglia replacement has been successfully exploited to deliver therapeutics to the CNS in human diseases such as X-ALD and LSD. With this outlook in mind, we will discuss the evidence existing so far for microglial involvement in the pathogenesis and the therapy of specific CNS disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is present in the malignant cells of several human cancers including post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD), Hodgkin's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, natural killer/T lymphomas and Burkitt's lymphoma. Yet in > 90% of the world's adult population, who carry EBV as a lifelong asymptomatic infection, the oncogenic potential of this virus is controlled by a strong virus-specific T-cell response. Accordingly, EBV-associated malignancies represent good candidates for a T-cell-based therapy and provide an important model for developing such therapies for other human cancers. This review summarizes the impressive results seen with T-cell therapy for PTLD and discusses, in the light of recent technological advances, the prospects for developing more effective approaches for other EBV-associated cancers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only therapeutic approach that can arrest cerebral demyelination of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) in boys and results in long-term in a good quality of life, provided the procedure is performed at an early stage of disease. Similar benefits of allogeneic HSCT have been demonstrated in adults with cerebral ALD. However, it is not yet known whether allogeneic HSCT can prevent or rescue adrenomyeloneuropathy. Allogeneic HSCT remains associated with significant morbidity and mortality risks, particularly in adults, and not all ALD patients have donors despite the availability of cord blood. The absence of biological markers that can predict the evolutivity of cerebral disease is a major limitation to propose in due time allogeneic HSCT to ALD patients. Recently, HSC gene therapy using lentiviral vector was shown to have comparable efficacy than allogeneic HSCT in two boys with cerebral ALD who had no Human-leukocyte-antigen (HLA)-matched donor. If these results are confirmed in an extended series of patients, HSC gene therapy may become the first therapeutic option for all ALD male patients who develop cerebral demyelination.
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