Diabetes affects more than 150 million people worldwide, and it is estimated that this would increase to 299 million by the year 2025. The incidence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease are two- to eightfold higher in subjects with diabetes than in those without, coronary artery disease accounting for the large majority of deaths. Among the full spectrum of biochemical effects of high glucose, generation of oxygen-derived free radicals is one of the main pathophysiological mechanisms linking hyperglycemia to atherosclerosis, nephropathy, and cardiomyopathy. The adaptor protein p66(Shc) is implicated in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and translation of oxidative signals into apoptosis. Indeed, p66(Shc-/-) mice display prolonged lifespan, reduced production of intracellular oxidants, and increased resistance to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Accordingly, a series of studies defined the pathophysiological role of p66(Shc) in cardiovascular disease where ROS represent a substantial triggering component. As p66(Shc) modulates the production of cellular ROS, it represents a proximal node through which high glucose exerts its deleterious effects on different cell types; indeed, several studies tested the hypothesis that deletion of the p66(Shc) gene may confer protection against diabetes-related cardiovascular complications. The present review focuses on the reported evidence linking p66(Shc) signaling pathway to high glucose-associated endothelial dysfunction, atherogenesis, nephropathy, and cardiomyopathy.
"In animal models, the p66Shc protein has been shown to be involved in the cellular events leading to atherosclerosis. Overexpression of the p66Shc gene has been shown to reduce nitric oxide generation in endothelial cells, whereas downregulation or deletion of the p66Shc gene improved the impaired endothelial cell-dependent vasodilation . In humans, the expression of p66Shc has been evaluated in circulating monocytes, which are key contributors to the vascular damage. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endothelial cells participate in inflammatory events leading to atherogenesis by regulating endothelial cell permeability via the expression of VE-Cadherin and β-catenin and leukocyte recruitment via the expression of E-Selectins and other adhesion molecules. The protein p66(Shc) acts as a sensor/inducer of oxidative stress and may promote vascular dysfunction. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of p66(Shc) in tumor necrosis factor TNFα-induced E-Selectin expression and function in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Exposure of HUVEC to 50 ng/ml TNFα resulted in increased leukocyte transmigration through the endothelial monolayer and E-Selectin expression, in association with augmented phosphorylation of both p66(Shc) on Ser(36) and the stress kinase c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase (JNK)-1/2, and higher intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Overexpression of p66(Shc) in HUVEC resulted in enhanced p66(Shc) phosphorylation on Ser(36), increased ROS and E-Selectin levels, and amplified endothelial cell permeability and leukocyte transmigration through the HUVEC monolayer. Conversely, overexpression of a phosphorylation-defective p66(Shc) protein, in which Ser(36) was replaced by Ala, did not augment ROS and E-Selectin levels, nor modify cell permeability or leukocyte transmigration beyond those found in wild-type cells. Moreover, siRNA-mediated silencing of p66(Shc) resulted in marked reduction of E-Selectin expression and leukocyte transmigration. In conclusion, p66(Shc) acts as a novel intermediate in the TNFα pathway mediating endothelial dysfunction, and its action requires JNK-dependent phosphorylation of p66(Shc) on Ser(36).
PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e81930. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0081930 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"This paper aims to illustrate the correlation between oxidative stress, obesity, and CVDs, especially focusing on the 66-kilodalton (kDa) isoform of the growth factor adapter Shc (p66Shc) and some isoforms of the protein kinase C (PKC) family that are particularly sensitive to redox stress and are implicated both in CVDs and obesity [6–8]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a byproduct of the normal metabolism of oxygen and have important roles in cell signalling and homeostasis. An imbalance between ROS production and the cellular antioxidant defence system leads to oxidative stress. Environmental factors and genetic interactions play key roles in oxidative stress mediated pathologies. In this paper, we focus on cardiovascular diseases and obesity, disorders strongly related to each other; in which oxidative stress plays a fundamental role. We provide evidence of the key role played by p66(Shc) protein and protein kinase C (PKC) in these pathologies by their intracellular regulation of redox balance and oxidative stress levels. Additionally, we discuss possible therapeutic strategies aimed at attenuating the oxidative damage in these diseases.
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 03/2013; 2013(1):564961. DOI:10.1155/2013/564961 · 3.36 Impact Factor
"Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in diabetes (1,2). Long-term exposure to oxidative stress is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple organs from diabetes, such as the liver, kidneys, and heart (3). Protein damage results as a consequence of oxidative stress in diabetes (4). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress plays a major role in diabetes. In vivo levels of membrane-bound radicals (MBRs) in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic mouse model were uniquely detected by combining molecular magnetic resonance imaging (mMRI) and immunotrapping techniques. An anti-DMPO (5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide) antibody (Ab) covalently bound to an albumin (BSA)-Gd (gadolinium)-DTPA (diethylene triamine penta acetic acid)-biotin MRI contrast agent (anti-DMPO probe), and mMRI, were used to detect in vivo levels of DMPO-MBR adducts in kidneys, livers, and lungs of diabetic mice, after DMPO administration. Magnetic resonance signal intensities, which increase in the presence of a Gd-based molecular probe, were significantly higher within the livers, kidneys, and lungs of diabetic animals administered the anti-DMPO probe compared with controls. Fluorescence images validated the location of the anti-DMPO probe in excised tissues via conjugation of streptavidin-Cy3, which targeted the probe biotin moiety, and immunohistochemistry was used to validate the presence of DMPO adducts in diabetic mouse livers. This is the first report of noninvasively imaging in vivo levels of MBRs within any disease model. This method can be specifically applied toward diabetes models for in vivo assessment of free radical levels, providing an avenue to more fully understand the role of free radicals in diabetes.
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