p66(Shc) protein, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular complications of diabetes: the missing link.
ABSTRACT Diabetes affects more than 150 million people worldwide, and it is estimated that this would increase to 299 million by the year 2025. The incidence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease are two- to eightfold higher in subjects with diabetes than in those without, coronary artery disease accounting for the large majority of deaths. Among the full spectrum of biochemical effects of high glucose, generation of oxygen-derived free radicals is one of the main pathophysiological mechanisms linking hyperglycemia to atherosclerosis, nephropathy, and cardiomyopathy. The adaptor protein p66(Shc) is implicated in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and translation of oxidative signals into apoptosis. Indeed, p66(Shc-/-) mice display prolonged lifespan, reduced production of intracellular oxidants, and increased resistance to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Accordingly, a series of studies defined the pathophysiological role of p66(Shc) in cardiovascular disease where ROS represent a substantial triggering component. As p66(Shc) modulates the production of cellular ROS, it represents a proximal node through which high glucose exerts its deleterious effects on different cell types; indeed, several studies tested the hypothesis that deletion of the p66(Shc) gene may confer protection against diabetes-related cardiovascular complications. The present review focuses on the reported evidence linking p66(Shc) signaling pathway to high glucose-associated endothelial dysfunction, atherogenesis, nephropathy, and cardiomyopathy.
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ABSTRACT: Endothelial cells participate in inflammatory events leading to atherogenesis by regulating endothelial cell permeability via the expression of VE-Cadherin and β-catenin and leukocyte recruitment via the expression of E-Selectins and other adhesion molecules. The protein p66(Shc) acts as a sensor/inducer of oxidative stress and may promote vascular dysfunction. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of p66(Shc) in tumor necrosis factor TNFα-induced E-Selectin expression and function in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Exposure of HUVEC to 50 ng/ml TNFα resulted in increased leukocyte transmigration through the endothelial monolayer and E-Selectin expression, in association with augmented phosphorylation of both p66(Shc) on Ser(36) and the stress kinase c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase (JNK)-1/2, and higher intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Overexpression of p66(Shc) in HUVEC resulted in enhanced p66(Shc) phosphorylation on Ser(36), increased ROS and E-Selectin levels, and amplified endothelial cell permeability and leukocyte transmigration through the HUVEC monolayer. Conversely, overexpression of a phosphorylation-defective p66(Shc) protein, in which Ser(36) was replaced by Ala, did not augment ROS and E-Selectin levels, nor modify cell permeability or leukocyte transmigration beyond those found in wild-type cells. Moreover, siRNA-mediated silencing of p66(Shc) resulted in marked reduction of E-Selectin expression and leukocyte transmigration. In conclusion, p66(Shc) acts as a novel intermediate in the TNFα pathway mediating endothelial dysfunction, and its action requires JNK-dependent phosphorylation of p66(Shc) on Ser(36).PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e81930. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The in vitro production of mammalian embryos suffers from high frequencies of developmental failure due to excessive levels of permanent embryo arrest and apoptosis caused by oxidative stress. The p66Shc stress adaptor protein controls oxidative stress response of somatic cells by regulating intracellular ROS levels through multiple pathways, including mitochondrial ROS generation and the repression of antioxidant gene expression. We have previously demonstrated a strong relationship with elevated p66Shc levels, reduced antioxidant levels and greater intracellular ROS generation with the high incidence of permanent cell cycle arrest of 2-4 cell embryos cultured under high oxygen tensions or after oxidant treatment. The main objective of this study was to establish a functional role for p66Shc in regulating the oxidative stress response during early embryo development. Using RNA interference in bovine zygotes we show that p66Shc knockdown embryos exhibited increased MnSOD levels, reduced intracellular ROS and DNA damage that resulted in a greater propensity for development to the blastocyst stage. P66Shc knockdown embryos were stress resistant exhibiting significantly reduced intracellular ROS levels, DNA damage, permanent 2-4 cell embryo arrest and diminished apoptosis frequencies after oxidant treatment. The results of this study demonstrate that p66Shc controls the oxidative stress response in early mammalian embryos. Small molecule inhibition of p66Shc may be a viable clinical therapy to increase the developmental potential of in vitro produced mammalian embryos.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e86978. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The free radical theory of aging proposes that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced accumulation of damage to cellular macromolecules is a primary driving force of aging and a major determinant of lifespan. Although this theory is one of the most popular explanations for the cause of aging, several experimental rodent models of antioxidant manipulation have failed to affect lifespan. Moreover, antioxidant supplementation clinical trials have been largely disappointing. The mitochondrial theory of aging specifies more particularly that mitochondria are both the primary sources of ROS and the primary targets of ROS damage. In addition to effects on lifespan and aging, mitochondrial ROS have been shown to play a central role in healthspan of many vital organ systems. In this article we review the evidence supporting the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and dysfunction in aging and healthspan, including cardiac aging, age-dependent cardiovascular diseases, skeletal muscle aging, neurodegenerative diseases, insulin resistance and diabetes as well as age-related cancers. The crosstalk of mitochondrial ROS, redox, and other cellular signaling is briefly presented. Potential therapeutic strategies to improve mitochondrial function in aging and healthspan are reviewed, with a focus on mitochondrial protective drugs, such as the mitochondrial antioxidants MitoQ, SkQ1, and the mitochondrial protective peptide SS-31.Longevity & healthspan. 01/2014; 3:6.