p66(Shc) protein, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular complications of diabetes: the missing link.
ABSTRACT Diabetes affects more than 150 million people worldwide, and it is estimated that this would increase to 299 million by the year 2025. The incidence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease are two- to eightfold higher in subjects with diabetes than in those without, coronary artery disease accounting for the large majority of deaths. Among the full spectrum of biochemical effects of high glucose, generation of oxygen-derived free radicals is one of the main pathophysiological mechanisms linking hyperglycemia to atherosclerosis, nephropathy, and cardiomyopathy. The adaptor protein p66(Shc) is implicated in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and translation of oxidative signals into apoptosis. Indeed, p66(Shc-/-) mice display prolonged lifespan, reduced production of intracellular oxidants, and increased resistance to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Accordingly, a series of studies defined the pathophysiological role of p66(Shc) in cardiovascular disease where ROS represent a substantial triggering component. As p66(Shc) modulates the production of cellular ROS, it represents a proximal node through which high glucose exerts its deleterious effects on different cell types; indeed, several studies tested the hypothesis that deletion of the p66(Shc) gene may confer protection against diabetes-related cardiovascular complications. The present review focuses on the reported evidence linking p66(Shc) signaling pathway to high glucose-associated endothelial dysfunction, atherogenesis, nephropathy, and cardiomyopathy.
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ABSTRACT: The super-flexible wires, which can withstand significant stretch as well as bend, are successfully developed by using the conductive adhesive containing Ag particles dispersed in a silicone-based binder. After curing under suitable conditions, the electrical conduction in the adhesive was detectable until the elongation reached to 100-180 %. Furthermore, the electric resistance was almost recovered after removing tensile stress. This wiring technology was applied for fabricating a prototype sensor sheet for artificial skin applications of robots and related equipments. The piezoelectric films composed of poly(vinylidene fluoride) were assembled on a silicone substrate by using the silicone-based conductive adhesive in order to fabricate the sensor sheet. The information related to pressure distribution was monitored successfully when we toughed the sensor sheet.Polymers and Adhesives in Microelectronics and Photonics, Polytronic, 2005. Polytronic 2005. 5th International Conference on; 11/2005
- 01/2008; 7(1). DOI:10.1016/S1541-9800(08)70001-2
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