p66(Shc) protein, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular complications of diabetes: the missing link.
ABSTRACT Diabetes affects more than 150 million people worldwide, and it is estimated that this would increase to 299 million by the year 2025. The incidence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease are two- to eightfold higher in subjects with diabetes than in those without, coronary artery disease accounting for the large majority of deaths. Among the full spectrum of biochemical effects of high glucose, generation of oxygen-derived free radicals is one of the main pathophysiological mechanisms linking hyperglycemia to atherosclerosis, nephropathy, and cardiomyopathy. The adaptor protein p66(Shc) is implicated in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and translation of oxidative signals into apoptosis. Indeed, p66(Shc-/-) mice display prolonged lifespan, reduced production of intracellular oxidants, and increased resistance to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Accordingly, a series of studies defined the pathophysiological role of p66(Shc) in cardiovascular disease where ROS represent a substantial triggering component. As p66(Shc) modulates the production of cellular ROS, it represents a proximal node through which high glucose exerts its deleterious effects on different cell types; indeed, several studies tested the hypothesis that deletion of the p66(Shc) gene may confer protection against diabetes-related cardiovascular complications. The present review focuses on the reported evidence linking p66(Shc) signaling pathway to high glucose-associated endothelial dysfunction, atherogenesis, nephropathy, and cardiomyopathy.
SourceAvailable from: Luca Peruzzotti-Jametti[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Constitutive genetic deletion of the adaptor protein p66(Shc) was shown to protect from ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Here, we aimed at understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect in stroke and studied p66(Shc) gene regulation in human ischaemic stroke. Ischaemia/reperfusion brain injury was induced by performing a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion surgery on wild-type mice. After the ischaemic episode and upon reperfusion, small interfering RNA targeting p66(Shc) was injected intravenously. We observed that post-ischaemic p66(Shc) knockdown preserved blood-brain barrier integrity that resulted in improved stroke outcome, as identified by smaller lesion volumes, decreased neurological deficits, and increased survival. Experiments on primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells demonstrated that silencing of the adaptor protein p66(Shc) preserves claudin-5 protein levels during hypoxia/reoxygenation by reducing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity and reactive oxygen species production. Further, we found that in peripheral blood monocytes of acute ischaemic stroke patients p66(Shc) gene expression is transiently increased and that this increase correlates with short-term neurological outcome. Post-ischaemic silencing of p66(Shc) upon reperfusion improves stroke outcome in mice while the expression of p66(Shc) gene correlates with short-term outcome in patients with ischaemic stroke. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: email@example.com.European Heart Journal 04/2015; DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehv140 · 14.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Increased cyclic stretch to the vessel wall, as observed in hypertension, leads to endothelial dysfunction through increased free radical production and reduced nitric oxide bioavailability. Genetic deletion of the adaptor protein p66(Shc) protects mice against age-related and hyperglycemia-induced endothelial dysfunction, as well as atherosclerosis and stroke. Furthermore, p66(Shc) mediates vascular dysfunction in hypertensive mice. However, the direct role of p66(Shc) in mediating mechanical force-induced free radical production is unknown; thus, we studied the effect of cyclic stretch on p66(Shc) activation in primary human aortic endothelial cells and aortic endothelial cells isolated from normotensive and hypertensive rats. Exposure of human aortic endothelial cells to cyclic stretch led to a stretch- and time-dependent p66(Shc) phosphorylation at Ser36 downstream of integrin α5β1 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. In parallel, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activation, as well as production of reactive oxygen species, increased, whereas nitric oxide bioavailability decreased. Silencing of p66(Shc) blunted stretch-increased superoxide anion production and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activation and restored nitric oxide bioavailability. In line with the above, activation of p66(Shc) increased in isolated aortic endothelial cells of spontaneously hypertensive rats compared with normotensive ones. Pathological stretch by activating integrin α5β1 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylates p66(Shc) at Ser36, augments reactive oxygen species production via nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, and in turn reduces nitric oxide bioavailability. This novel molecular pathway may be relevant for endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease in hypertension.Hypertension 05/2014; 64(2). DOI:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.113.02129 · 7.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The free radical theory of aging proposes that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced accumulation of damage to cellular macromolecules is a primary driving force of aging and a major determinant of lifespan. Although this theory is one of the most popular explanations for the cause of aging, several experimental rodent models of antioxidant manipulation have failed to affect lifespan. Moreover, antioxidant supplementation clinical trials have been largely disappointing. The mitochondrial theory of aging specifies more particularly that mitochondria are both the primary sources of ROS and the primary targets of ROS damage. In addition to effects on lifespan and aging, mitochondrial ROS have been shown to play a central role in healthspan of many vital organ systems. In this article we review the evidence supporting the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and dysfunction in aging and healthspan, including cardiac aging, age-dependent cardiovascular diseases, skeletal muscle aging, neurodegenerative diseases, insulin resistance and diabetes as well as age-related cancers. The crosstalk of mitochondrial ROS, redox, and other cellular signaling is briefly presented. Potential therapeutic strategies to improve mitochondrial function in aging and healthspan are reviewed, with a focus on mitochondrial protective drugs, such as the mitochondrial antioxidants MitoQ, SkQ1, and the mitochondrial protective peptide SS-31.01/2014; 3:6. DOI:10.1186/2046-2395-3-6