Purkinje cell loss in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
ABSTRACT Gray matter atrophy observed by brain MRI is an important correlate to clinical disability and disease duration in multiple sclerosis. The objective of this study was to link brain atrophy visualized by neuroimaging to its underlying neuropathology using the MS model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Volumetric changes in brains of EAE mice, as well as matched healthy normal controls, were quantified by collecting post-mortem high-resolution T2-weighted magnetic resonance microscopy and actively stained magnetic resonance histology images. Anatomical delineations demonstrated a significant decrease in the volume of the whole cerebellum, cerebellar cortex, and molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex in EAE as compared to normal controls. The pro-apoptotic marker caspase-3 was detected in Purkinje cells and a significant decrease in Purkinje cell number was found in EAE. Cross modality and temporal correlations revealed a significant association between Purkinje cell loss on neuropathology and atrophy of the molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex by neuroimaging. These results demonstrate the power of using combined population atlasing and neuropathology approaches to discern novel insights underlying gray matter atrophy in animal models of neurodegenerative disease.
Article: Quantitative pathological evidence for axonal loss in normal appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We assessed axonal loss in the normal appearing white matter of the corpus callosum in postmortem brains of patients with multiple sclerosis, using quantitative measures of both axonal density and white matter atrophy. The calculated total number of axons was reduced significantly (mean +/- SD, 5.4 x 10(7) +/- 3.1 x 10(7)) compared with normal controls (11.6 x 10(7) +/- 2.2 x 10(7), p = 0.001) with a reduction both in axonal density (median, 34%; range, 16-56%; p = 0.004) and area (mean +/- SD: multiple sclerosis, 584 +/- 170 mm2; controls, 871 +/- 163 mm2; p = 0.004). These results confirm substantial axonal loss in the normal appearing white matter and demonstrate that measures of both axonal density and white matter volume are necessary to appreciate the full extent of axonal loss.Annals of Neurology 04/2000; 47(3):391-5. · 11.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Deubiquitination by the Fat facets protein - a regulator of photoreceptor differentiation during Drosophila eye development - has been found to activate endocytosis, while ubiquitination inhibits endocytosis. Surprisingly, this is the opposite effect that ubiquitination has on endocytosis of many plasma membrane proteins.Current Biology 08/2000; 10(14):R532-4. · 9.65 Impact Factor