Cytochrome P450 (CYP1A) induction in sea bream (Sparus Aurata) gills and liver following exposure to polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs).
Dipartimento di Scienze Sperimentali e Biotecnologie Applicate, Università degli Studi di Messina, Polo Universitario dell'Annunziata, 98168, Messina, Italy.Veterinary Research Communications (Impact Factor: 1.08). 08/2009; 33 Suppl 1:181-4. DOI:10.1007/s11259-009-9279-3
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ABSTRACT: The toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach was employed to compare immunotoxic potency of mixtures containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls relative to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), using the antibody response to sheep erythrocytes (SRBC). Mixture-1 (MIX-1) contained TCDD, 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (PeCDD), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF), 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (1-PeCDF), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4-PeCDF), and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9-octachlorodibenzofuran (OCDF). Mixture-2 (MIX-2) contained MIX-1 and the following PCBs, 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC No. 77), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (126), 3,3',4,4',5,5N-hexachlorobiphenyl (169), 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl (105), 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (118), and 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl (156). The mixture compositions were based on relative chemical concentrations in food and human tissues. TCDD equivalents (TEQ) of the mixture were estimated using relative potency factors from hepatic enzyme induction in mice [DeVito, M.J., Diliberto, J.J., Ross, D.G., Menache, M.G., Birnbaum, L.S., 1997. Dose-response relationships for polyhalogenated dioxins and dibenzofurans following subchronic treatment in mice. I .CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 enzyme activity in liver, lung and skin. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 130, 197-208; DeVito, M.J., Menache, G., Diliberto, J.J., Ross, D.G., Birnbaum L.S., 2000. Dose-response relationships for induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 enzyme activity in liver, lung, and skin in female mice following subchronic exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 167, 157-172] Female mice received 0, 1.5, 15, 150 or 450 ng TCDD/kg/day or approximately 0, 1.5, 15, 150 or 450 ng TEQ/kg/day of MIX-1 or MIX-2 by gavage 5 days per week for 13 weeks. Mice were immunized 3 days after the last exposure and 4 days later, body, spleen, thymus, and liver weights were measured, and antibody response to SRBCs was observed. Exposure to TCDD, MIX-1, and MIX-2 suppressed the antibody response in a dose-dependent manner. Two-way ANOVA indicated no differences in the response between TCDD and the mixtures for body weight, spleen/body weight and decreased antibody responses. The results support the use of the TEF methodology and suggest that immune suppression by dioxin-like chemicals may be of concern at or near background human exposures.Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 04/2008; 227(3):477-84. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The cytochrome P4501C (CYP1C) gene subfamily was recently discovered in fish, and zebrafish (Danio rerio) CYP1C1 transcript has been cloned. Here we cloned the paralogous CYP1C2, showing that the amino acid sequence is 78% identical to CYP1C1, and examined gene structure and expression of CYP1A, CYP1B1, CYP1C1, and CYP1C2. Xenobiotic response elements were observed upstream of the coding regions in all four genes. Zebrafish adults and embryos were exposed (24 h) to 100 nM 3,3',4,4',5-polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB126) or 20 ppm acetone and subsequently held in clean water for 24 h (adults) or 48 h (embryos). All adult organs examined (eye, gill, heart, liver, kidney, brain, gut, and gonads) and embryos showed basal expression of the four genes. CYP1A was most strongly expressed in liver, whereas CYP1B1, CYP1C1, and CYP1C2 were most strongly expressed in heart and eye. CYP1B1 and the CYP1C genes showed an expression pattern similar to one another and to mammalian CYP1B1. In embryos CYP1C1 and CYP1C2 tended to have a higher basal expression than CYP1A and CYP1B1. PCB126 induced CYP1A in all organs, and CYP1B1 and CYP1C1 in all organs except gonads, or gonads and brain, respectively. CYP1C2 induction was significant only in the liver. However, in embryos all four genes were induced strongly by PCB126. The results are consistent with CYP1C1 and CYP1C2, as well as CYP1A and CYP1B1, being regulated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. While CYP1A may have a protective role against AHR agonists in liver and gut, CYP1B1, CYP1C1, and CYP1C2 may also play endogenous roles in eye and heart and possibly other organs, as well as during development.Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 06/2007; 221(1):29-41. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) are ubiquitous environment contaminants that produce many of their toxic effects by binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). However, several investigations have demonstrated that certain polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, principally di-ortho-chlorinated PCB congeners, or mixtures containing multiple di-ortho-chlorinated PCBs, inhibit AhR-mediated responses induced by other toxic HAHs. Most relevant to the present study are past reports demonstrating antagonism by these uniquely acting PCB congeners on AhR agonist-mediated inhibition of humoral immune responses. The mechanism responsible for antagonism of AhR agonists by certain PCBs is presently unknown. The present study evaluated the antagonist activity of several di-ortho-substituted PCB congeners [PCB47 (2,2',4,4'), PCB52 (2,2',5,5'), PCB128 (2,2',3,3',4,4'), and PCB153 (2,2',4,4',5,5')] when present in combination with AhR agonists [TCDD (2,3,7,8,-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), PCB126 (3,3',4,4',5), and PCB77 (3,3',4,4')] on CYP1A1 induction and inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced immunoglobulin production in the CH12.LX B cell line. In contrast to non-ortho-substituted PCB (PCB77), which showed additive effects on CYP1A1 induction in combination with TCDD, all of the di-ortho-substituted PCBs examined produced antagonism. Di-ortho-substituted PCB (PCB52) also antagonized TCDD- or PCB126- mediated inhibition of IgM secretion and immunoglobulin heavy chain mRNA expression in the LPS-activated B cells. In addition, PCB52 inhibited TCDD-induced AhR DNA binding to a dioxin-responsive element. Collectively, these results suggest that the mechanism responsible for antagonism by di-ortho-substituted PCB congeners of AhR agonist-mediated CYP1A1 induction and inhibition of antibody responses in B cells occurs through interference with agonist activation of the cytosolic AhR complex.Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 03/2003; 187(1):11-21. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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