Inflammatory biomarkers and the prediction of coronary events among people at intermediate risk: the EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study.
ABSTRACT To evaluate the role of the inflammatory biomarkers C-reactive protein (CRP), myeloperoxidase, paraoxonase, secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (sPLA2), lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, fibrinogen, macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 and adiponectin, in predicting the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) among people estimated to be at intermediate risk according to the Framingham Risk Score (FRS).
Prospective case-control study nested in EPIC-Norfolk cohort.
Apparently healthy men and women aged 45-79 years.
Risk of future coronary artery disease.
For participants predicted to be at intermediate risk by the FRS, the highest c statistics were observed for FRS plus CRP (0.61, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.65) and for FRS plus sPLA2 (0.56, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.6). Net correct reclassification of cases and controls for each marker was assessed for people across the entire risk spectrum and again for people at intermediate risk only. The largest differences were observed for CRP, 12.0% net reclassification improvement in the entire risk spectrum and 28.4% net reclassification improvement in the intermediate-risk group and for sPLA2, the net reclassification improvement was 6.4% in the entire risk spectrum and 16.3% in the intermediate-risk group.
The discriminatory potential of inflammatory biomarkers was substantially different when analysed across the entire risk spectrum compared with the subgroup of people at intermediate risk.
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ABSTRACT: Two highly prevalent diseases, Type-2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease (CHD), share risk factors. Excess levels of LDL-cholesterol have been overemphasized to uniformly encompass the development of CHD, and the origin of insulin resistance underlying Type-2 diabetes has not been fully elucidated. Autoimmune response has been recognized to be responsible only of a small minority of diabetes. The increasing trend in the worldwide prevalence of diabetes and the risk factors for both diseases are reviewed, the independent mediation for CHD of (central) adiposity in both diseases and the 'hypertriglyceridemic waist' phenotype are outlined. Evidence is described that serum lipoprotein (Lp)(a) concentrations, not only in excess, but also in apparently 'reduced' levels, as a result of autoimmune response, underlie both disorders and are closely related to insulin resistance.Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy 06/2014; 12(6):667-79.
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ABSTRACT: The incidence of coronary heart disease in premenopausal women is lower than in men because of their hormonal protection. Angina pectoris occurs in women about 10 years later than in men. However, mortality from ischaemic heart disease remains higher in women than in men. Current studies are focusing on novel cardiovascular risk biomarkers because it seems that traditional cardiovascular risk factors and their assessment scores underestimate the risk in females. Increased plasma levels of these newly established biomarkers of risk have been found to worsen endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, both of which play a key role in the pathogenesis of microvascular angina, which is very common in women. These novel cardiovascular risk markers can be classified into three categories: inflammatory markers, markers of haemostasis, and other biomarkers.Cardiovascular journal of Africa. 05/2014; 25(3):137-141.
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ABSTRACT: Although the age-adjusted Framingham risk score (AFRS), flow-mediated dilation (FMD), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, homocysteine, and free fatty acid (FFA) can predict future cardiovascular events (CVEs), a comparison of these risk assessments for patients with stable angina has not been reported. We enrolled 203 patients with stable angina who had been scheduled for coronary angiography (CAG). After CAG, 134 patients showed significant coronary artery disease. During 4.2 yr follow-up, 36 patients (18%) showed CVEs, including myocardial infarction, de-novo coronary artery revascularization, in-stent restenosis, stroke, and cardiovascular death. ROC analysis showed that AFRS, FMD, baPWV, and hsCRP could predict CVEs (with AUC values of 0.752, 0.707, 0.659, and 0.702, respectively, all P<0.001 except baPWV P=0.003). A Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that AFRS and FMD were independent predictors of CVEs (HR, 2.945; 95% CI, 1.572-5.522; P=0.001 and HR, 0.914; 95% CI, 0.826-0.989; P=0.008, respectively). However, there was no difference in predictive power between combining AFRS plus FMD and AFRS alone (AUC 0.752 vs. 0.763; z=1.358, P=0.175). In patients with stable angina, AFRS and FMD are independent predictors of CVEs. However, there is no additive value of FMD on the AFRS in predicting CVEs.Journal of Korean medical science. 10/2014; 29(10):1391-7.