Inflammatory biomarkers and the prediction of coronary events among people at intermediate risk: the EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study.
ABSTRACT To evaluate the role of the inflammatory biomarkers C-reactive protein (CRP), myeloperoxidase, paraoxonase, secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (sPLA2), lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, fibrinogen, macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 and adiponectin, in predicting the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) among people estimated to be at intermediate risk according to the Framingham Risk Score (FRS).
Prospective case-control study nested in EPIC-Norfolk cohort.
Apparently healthy men and women aged 45-79 years.
Risk of future coronary artery disease.
For participants predicted to be at intermediate risk by the FRS, the highest c statistics were observed for FRS plus CRP (0.61, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.65) and for FRS plus sPLA2 (0.56, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.6). Net correct reclassification of cases and controls for each marker was assessed for people across the entire risk spectrum and again for people at intermediate risk only. The largest differences were observed for CRP, 12.0% net reclassification improvement in the entire risk spectrum and 28.4% net reclassification improvement in the intermediate-risk group and for sPLA2, the net reclassification improvement was 6.4% in the entire risk spectrum and 16.3% in the intermediate-risk group.
The discriminatory potential of inflammatory biomarkers was substantially different when analysed across the entire risk spectrum compared with the subgroup of people at intermediate risk.
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ABSTRACT: Two highly prevalent diseases, Type-2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease (CHD), share risk factors. Excess levels of LDL-cholesterol have been overemphasized to uniformly encompass the development of CHD, and the origin of insulin resistance underlying Type-2 diabetes has not been fully elucidated. Autoimmune response has been recognized to be responsible only of a small minority of diabetes. The increasing trend in the worldwide prevalence of diabetes and the risk factors for both diseases are reviewed, the independent mediation for CHD of (central) adiposity in both diseases and the 'hypertriglyceridemic waist' phenotype are outlined. Evidence is described that serum lipoprotein (Lp)(a) concentrations, not only in excess, but also in apparently 'reduced' levels, as a result of autoimmune response, underlie both disorders and are closely related to insulin resistance.Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy 06/2014; 12(6):667-79.
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ABSTRACT: Background & objectives: Secretory phospholipase A 2 (sPLA 2 ), a member of the phospholipase A2 superfamily of enzymes that hydrolyses phospholipids, is a potentially useful plasma biomarker for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between cardiovascular risk factors and the sPLA 2 levels in women with metabolic syndrome as compared to women without metabolic syndrome and men with metabolic syndrome. Methods: Patients (n=100) with various cardiovascular risk factors consecutively evaluated at the Rehabilitation Hospital-Cardiology Department, Cluj-Napoca, Romania were enrolled during 2011, of whom 10 were excluded. The patients were divided in three groups: group 1 (37 women with metabolic syndrome), group 2 (27 men with metabolic syndrome), and group 3 (26 women without metabolic syndrome). Body weight, smoking habits, glycaemia, hypertension, and serum lipids fractions were analysed as cardiovascular factors. Serum sPLA 2 activity was measured using the chromogenic method. Results: There were no statistically significant correlations between sPLA 2 levels and the investigated risk factors, irrespective of patient groups. However, there were significant positive correlations between sPLA 2 and hsCRP in all three groups (P<0.05). In women with no metabolic syndrome an negative correlation was found between sPLA 2 levels and HDL-C- r=-0.419, P=0.03. In men with metabolic syndrome there was a direct correlation between sPLA 2 levels and HOMA, r=0.43, P<0.05, 95% CI (-0.098; 1.15). Interpretation & conclusions: Women with metabolic syndrome did not display different sPLA 2 levels as compared to men with metabolic syndrome and women without metabolic syndrome. However, women with metabolic syndrome demonstrated a low but positive correlation between sPLA 2 and hsCRP levels.The Indian Journal of Medical Research 12/2013; 138(6):866-72. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Biobanks for medical research are organized collections of biological samples associated with personal data and information on their donors, to be stored for an indefinite period of time. The storage of biological samples has varied considerably over time, ranging from the informal storage of tissue specimens in a researcher's freezer in the past, to the present well-structured formal repositories. Large-scale population-related biobanks are being set up in several countries and will allow not only research into individual diseases, but also approaches to a wide range of health-related issues, such as physical activity, eating, drinking, education and pollution, among others. The purpose of this article is to discuss how biobanks have improved research in cardiovascular disease epidemiology and prevention, by describing the most relevant population-based epidemiological studies that used set-up biobanks and stored samples for research. The selection of epidemiological studies and biobanks was based on their dimensions and their contribution to the field.Future Cardiology 03/2014; 10(2):243-54.