Blame attribution as a moderator of perceptions of sexual orientation-based hate crimes
University of Alabama, Box 870348, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA.Journal of Interpersonal Violence (Impact Factor: 1.64). 08/2009; 25(5):848-62. DOI: 10.1177/0886260509336962
Blame attribution is a valuable mechanism explaining decision making. However, present literature mainly employs blame attribution as a dependent variable. The shortcoming of this fact is that blame attribution offers a potentially valuable explanatory mechanism for decision making. The authors designed two studies to investigate blame attribution as a moderator of sentencing decisions in sexual orientation-based hate crimes. Study 1 showed that mock jurors punished perpetrators of hate crimes more severely than a control condition. Also, degree of victim blame influenced punitive decision making. In Study 2, mock jurors extended findings that perpetrators of hate crimes are more harshly punished than those of other types of crimes. Victim and perpetrator blame failed to moderate decision making in this more complex scenario. Results are discussed in relation to hate crimes definitions and attribution theory.
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- "To our knowledge , the present study is one of the first eval - uations of blame attribution as a mediator or explanatory mechanism of the effects of expert witness testimony . In - deed , most mock jury research frames perpetrator blame as a criterion or moderating mechanism ( Cramer , Chandler , et al . , 2010 ) . Overall , the mediation model showed an ex - pert Character - perpetrator blame - sentencing recommenda - tion pathway , suggesting that attribution of blame offers explanatory value in an expert testimony and risk assess - ment scenario ."
ABSTRACT: The present study integrates mock juror perceptions of witness credibility (i.e., Confidence, Trustworthiness, Likeability, and Knowledge), efficacy (i.e., Poise and Communication Style), and personality (i.e., the Five-Factor Model) of an expert witness in order to evaluate meta-factors or simplified structures of witness persuasion. Across two studies, mock jurors watched videotaped expert testimony about risk for future violence during the sentencing phase of a capital murder trial. Participants subsequently rated the expert on measures of credibility, efficacy, and personality, as well as various legal decisions. Study I (n = 314) factor-analytic results yielded two meta-factors of expert witness testimony, with a confirmed structure in Study II (n = 324): Character and Efficacy. Character was comprised of all four credibility subscales, as well as Neuroticism, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. Efficacy was represented by Poise, Communication Style, Confidence (which cross-loaded), and Extraversion. In Study II structural equation modeling also showed that perceived Character, but not Efficacy, was associated with sentencing recommendations directly and indirectly via attribution of perpetrator blame. Two meta-factors offering evaluation of character traits and behavioral performance appear supported by the present study. Implications for expert witness credibility and blame attributions theories are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)Journal of Individual Differences 03/2014; 35(1):1. DOI:10.1027/1614-0001/a000123 · 0.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The parent-child relationship is woven deep within historical and contemporary culture, but strong retributive ideals have led to blaming parents because of their presumed vicarious role in juvenile crime. The current article will discuss the history, forms, legal challenges, and empirical research related to parental involvement laws in the United States. The parent-child relationship provides the historical framework behind the separate juvenile justice parens patriae system; however, with the juvenile justice system not as successful as originally imagined, blame has shifted to the parents. We examine the potential constitutional implications of enacting and enforcing parental involvement statutes and ordinances and also the potential efficacy of parental involvement laws in reducing juvenile delinquency. In addition, we propose empirical research to test the underlying assumptions about blame made by parental involvement laws.Social Issues and Policy Review 03/2012; 6(1). DOI:10.1111/j.1751-2409.2011.01034.x
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ABSTRACT: The present study investigates victim sexual orientation in a sample of 641 violent crime victims seeking emergency medical treatment at a public-sector hospital. Victim sexual orientation was examined as it: (a) varies by type of violent crime and demographic characteristics, (b) directly relates to psychological symptoms, and (c) moderates the relationship between victim and crime characteristics (i.e., victim gender, victim trauma history, and type of crime) and psychological symptoms (i.e., symptoms of acute stress, depression, panic, and general anxiety). Results showed that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) victims were more likely to be victims of sexual assault. Heterosexual victims were more likely to be victims of general assault and shootings. LGBT victims demonstrated significantly higher levels of acute stress and general anxiety. Moreover, victim sexual orientation moderated the association of type of crime with experience of panic symptoms. Also, victim sexual orientation moderated the relation of victim trauma history and general anxiety symptoms. Results are discussed in relation to victimization prevalence rates, sexual prejudice theory, and assessment and treatment of violent crime victims.Law and Human Behavior 04/2012; 36(2):87-95. DOI:10.1037/h0093954 · 2.16 Impact Factor
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