Downregulation of claudin-2 expression in renal epithelial cells by metabolic acidosis.
ABSTRACT Chronic metabolic acidosis (CMA) is associated with an inhibition of fluid reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule. The effects of CMA on paracellular transport across the renal epithelial tight junction (TJ) is unknown. Claudin-2 is a transmembrane TJ-associated protein which confers TJ paracellular permeability to Na(+). We examined the effects of CMA on the expression of TJ transport proteins using both in vivo and in vitro models of CMA. The results showed downregulation of claudin-2 mRNA and protein expression in the cortex of rats subjected to the NH(4)Cl loading model of CMA. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and HK-2 cells are models of renal epithelial cells and express claudin-2 protein in their TJ. We examined the effects of acidic pH exposure on the expression of claudin-2 in MDCK and HK-2 renal epithelial cells. Exposure of MDCK cells to pH 6.96 medium caused a significant and reversible decrease in claudin-2 protein abundance. A dose-response analysis of acidic medium exposure of MDCK and HK-2 cells demonstrated a downregulation of claudin-2 protein. The downregulation effect of acidic pH is specific to claudin-2 expression as the expression of other TJ-associated proteins (i.e., claudin-1, -3, -4, and -7, occludin, and zonula occludens-1) remained unchanged compared with control pH (7.40). Collectively, these data demonstrate that CMA downregulates the expression of claudin-2 likely through a direct effect of acidic pH. Potential physiological significance of these changes is discussed.
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ABSTRACT: Mucosal surfaces are lined by epithelial cells. These cells establish a barrier between sometimes hostile external environments and the internal milieu. However, mucosae are also responsible for nutrient absorption and waste secretion, which require a selectively permeable barrier. These functions place the mucosal epithelium at the centre of interactions between the mucosal immune system and luminal contents, including dietary antigens and microbial products. Recent advances have uncovered mechanisms by which the intestinal mucosal barrier is regulated in response to physiological and immunological stimuli. Here I discuss these discoveries along with evidence that this regulation shapes mucosal immune responses in the gut and, when dysfunctional, may contribute to disease.Nature Reviews Immunology 11/2009; 9(11):799-809. · 32.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Clinical studies reported hypomagnesaemia in long-term omeprazole usage that was probably due to intestinal Mg2+ wasting. Our previous report demonstrated the inhibitory effect of omeprazole on passive Mg2+ transport across Caco-2 monolayers. The present study aimed to identify the underlying mechanism of omeprazole suppression of passive Mg2+ absorption. By using Caco-2 monolayers, we demonstrated a potent inhibitory effect of omeprazole on passive Mg2+, but not Ca2+, transport across Caco-2 monolayers. Omeprazole shifted the %maximum passive Mg2+ transport - Mg2+ concentration curves to the right, and increased the half maximal effective concentration of those dose - response curves, indicating a lower Mg2+ affinity of the paracellular channel. By continually monitoring the apical pH, we showed that omeprazole suppressed apical acid accumulation. Neomycin and spermine had no effect on passive Mg2+ transport of either control or omeprazole treated monolayers, indicating that omeprazole suppressed passive Mg2+ transport in a calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) - independent manner. The results of westernblot analysis showed that omeprazole significantly suppressed claudin (Cldn)-7 and -12, but not Cldn-2, expression in Caco-2 cells. By using apical solution of pH 5.5, 6.0, 6.5, and 7.0, we found that apical acidity markedly increased passive Mg2+ transport, Mg2+ affinity of the paracellular channel, and Cldn-7 and -12 expression in Caco-2 monolayers. Apical acidity abolished the inhibitory effect of omeprazole on passive Mg2+ transport and Cldn-7 and -12 expression. Our results provided the evidence for the regulation of intestinal passive Mg2+ absorption by luminal acidity-induced increase in Cldn-7 and -12 expression.Experimental and Molecular Medicine 08/2012; · 2.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Topical zinc applications promote wound healing and epithelialization. "Leaky" MDCKII epithelia exposed to apical ZnCl₂ (10 mM) showed a time-dependent increase (t (0.5) 22.2 ± 2.7 min) of transepithelial resistance (R (t)) from 82.3 ± 2.4 Ω cm² to 1,551 ± 225.6 Ω cm²; the increase was dose-dependent, being observed at 3 mM but not at 1 mM. Basal Zn²+ applications also increased epithelial resistance (at 10 mM to 323 ± 225.6 Ω cm²). The linear current-voltage relationship in control epithelia changed after apical 10 mM ZnCl₂ to show rectification. Voltage deflections resulting from inward currents showed time-dependent relaxation (basal potential difference (p.d.)-positive), with outward currents being time-independent. Cation selectivity was tested after apical ZnCl₂ elevated resistance; both the NaCl:mannitol (basal replacement) dilution p.d. and the choline:Na bi-ionic p.d. decreased (P(Na)/P(Cl) from 4.9 to 2.3 and P(Na)/P(choline) from 3.8 to 2.1, respectively). Transepithelial paracellular basal to apical ⁴⁵Ca fluxes increased approximately twofold when driven by a basal positive Na:NMDG bi-ionic p.d., but with basal 10 mM ZnCl₂, ⁴⁵Ca fluxes decreased approximately twofold. Neither ZO-1 nor occludin distribution was altered after ~2-h exposure to apical 10 mM ZnCl₂. However, claudin-2, though present at the tight junction, increased within the cell. Increased epithelial barrier resistance by Zn²+ is due to modification of the paracellular pathway, most probably by multiple mechanisms.Journal of Membrane Biology 11/2010; 237(2-3):115-23. · 2.48 Impact Factor