Regular exercise attenuates the metabolic drive to regain weight after long-term weight loss

Center for Human Nutrition, Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, Colorado, USA.
AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology (Impact Factor: 3.11). 08/2009; 297(3):R793-802. DOI: 10.1152/ajpregu.00192.2009
Source: PubMed


Weight loss is accompanied by several metabolic adaptations that work together to promote rapid, efficient regain. We employed a rodent model of regain to examine the effects of a regular bout of treadmill exercise on these adaptations. Obesity was induced in obesity-prone rats with 16 wk of high-fat feeding and limited physical activity. Obese rats were then weight reduced (approximately 14% of body wt) with a calorie-restricted, low-fat diet and maintained at that reduced weight for 8 wk by providing limited provisions of the diet with (EX) or without (SED) a daily bout of treadmill exercise (15 m/min, 30 min/day, 6 days/wk). Weight regain, energy balance, fuel utilization, adipocyte cellularity, and humoral signals of adiposity were monitored during eight subsequent weeks of ad libitum feeding while the rats maintained their respective regimens of physical activity. Regular exercise decreased the rate of regain early in relapse and lowered the defended body weight. During weight maintenance, regular exercise reduced the biological drive to eat so that it came closer to matching the suppressed level of energy expenditure. The diurnal extremes in fuel preference observed in weight-reduced rats were blunted, since exercise promoted the oxidation of fat during periods of feeding (dark cycle) and promoted the oxidation of carbohydrate (CHO) later in the day during periods of deprivation (light cycle) . At the end of relapse, exercise reestablished the homeostatic steady state between intake and expenditure to defend a lower body weight. Compared with SED rats, relapsed EX rats exhibited a reduced turnover of energy, a lower 24-h oxidation of CHO, fewer adipocytes in abdominal fat pads, and peripheral signals that overestimated their adiposity. These observations indicate that regimented exercise altered several metabolic adaptations to weight reduction in a manner that would coordinately attenuate the propensity to regain lost weight.

Download full-text


Available from: Erin Danielle Giles,
  • Source
    • "These findings are in agreement with the studies of Ebal et al (2), and Elj et al (3), which showed reduction in weight gain and food intake during five weeks of moderate strength exercise in rats. This significant lower body weight in trained rats may be due to the changed body composition by reducing fat mass as a result of exercise training (2, 3, 20), and negative energy balance linked with increased energy expenditure during the exercise (1). Chaolu et al, showed that the food intake of the mice in the exercise groups significantly increased as compared to the non-exercise groups (21). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective(s): Consumption of high-fat foods is one of the major causes of obesity. Physical exercise is a strategy used to counteract obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks endurance training and high-fat diet (HFD) on appetite-regulating hormones in rat plasma. Materials and Methods: Twenty eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control group with standard diet (CSD), endurance training with a standard diet (ESD), control group with high-fat diet (CHFD) and endurance training with high-fat diet (EHFD). Twenty-four hr after the last training session, the blood samples were obtained and analyzed for hormones levels. Results: The significant increased weight gain and food intake and decreased plasma nesfatin-1 and PYY3-36 levels were observed in CHFD group, while exercise under the HFD antagonized these effects. There were no significant changes in ghrelin, insulin and leptin levels in different groups. Conclusion: These results suggest that exercise can prevent fattening effect of HFD. Probably, performing exercise makes a reduction of food intake and weight gain in rat via the increase in nesfatin-1 and PYY levels. However, further studies are necessary to understand the exact mechanisms involved in this field.
    Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences 05/2014; 17(4):237-43. · 1.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Component analysis has evolved to become an integral part of indirect calorimetry data analysis, and has proved valuable in studies of obesity to elucidate the interaction of energy expenditure with PA (Girardier et al., 1995; Speakman and Selman, 2003; Novak et al., 2006; Kotz et al., 2008; Maclean et al., 2009; Virtue et al., 2012) and food intake (Maclean et al., 2004; Hambly et al., 2005; Johnston et al., 2007). In addition, component analysis has been used to investigate the influence of body composition on the BMR (Johnson et al., 2001; Selman et al., 2001) and of gene mutations (Mokhtarian et al., 1996; Nonogaki et al., 2003). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recently there has been an increasing interest in exploiting computational and statistical techniques for the purpose of component analysis of indirect calorimetry data. Using these methods it becomes possible to dissect daily energy expenditure into its components and to assess the dynamic response of the resting metabolic rate to nutritional and pharmacological manipulations. To perform robust component analysis, however, is not straightforward and typically requires the tuning of parameters and the preprocessing of data. Moreover the degree of accuracy that can be attained by these methods depends on the configuration of the system, which must be properly taken into account when setting up experimental studies. Here, we review the methods of Kalman filtering, linear and penalised spline regression, and minimal energy expenditure estimation in the context of component analysis and discuss their results on high resolution datasets from mice and rats. In addition, we investigate the effect of the sample time, the accuracy of the activity sensor, and the washout time of the chamber on the estimation accuracy. We found that on the high resolution data there was a strong correlation between the results of Kalman filtering and P-spline regression, except for the activity respiratory quotient. For low resolution data the basal metabolic rate and resting respiratory quotient could still be estimated accurately with P-spline regression, having a strong correlation with the high resolution estimate (R2 > 0.997; sample time of 9 min). In contrast, the thermic effect of food and activity related energy expenditure were more sensitive to a reduction in the sample rate (R2 > 0.97). In conclusion, for component analysis on data generated by single channel systems with continuous data acquisition both Kalman filtering and P-spline regression can be used, while for low resolution data from multichannel systems P-spline regression gives more robust results.
    Frontiers in Physiology 05/2013; 4:94. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2013.00094 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "While this metabolic context may be common in humans, prospective clinical studies of relapse on a high fat diet would be unethical because of the known detrimental metabolic consequences of this diet. So, we employed a well characterized postobese rodent model of weight regain [8,10-12,31] to examine the effect of RS and exercise on the biological drive to regain weight on a high fat diet following a period of weight loss and maintenance. This paradigm was utilized to test the hypothesis that RS and exercise would independently and synergistically decrease the rate of weight regain and lower the overall defended body weight as the animals relapsed from weight maintenance to obesity on an obesogenic diet. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Long-term weight reduction remains elusive for many obese individuals. Resistant starch (RS) and exercise may be useful for weight maintenance. The effects of RS, with or without exercise, on weight regain was examined during relapse to obesity on a high carbohydrate, high fat (HC/HF) diet. Obesity-prone rats were fed ad libitum for 16 weeks then weight reduced on a low fat diet to induce a 17% body weight loss (weight reduced rats). Weight reduced rats were maintained on an energy-restricted low fat diet for 18 weeks, with or without a daily bout of treadmill exercise. Rats were then allowed free access to HC/HF diet containing low (0.3%) or high (5.9%) levels of RS. Weight regain, energy balance, body composition, adipocyte cellularity, and fuel utilization were monitored as rats relapsed to obesity and surpassed their original, obese weight. Both RS and exercise independently attenuated weight regain by reducing the energy gap between the drive to eat and suppressed energy requirements. Exercise attenuated the deposition of lean mass during relapse, whereas its combination with RS sustained lean mass accrual as body weight returned. Early in relapse, RS lowered insulin levels and reduced the deposition of fat in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Exercise cessation at five weeks of relapse led to increased weight gain, body fat, subcutaneous adipocytes, and decreased lean mass; all detrimental consequences to overall metabolic health. These data are the first to show the complimentary effects of dietary RS and regular exercise in countering the metabolic drive to regain weight following weight loss and suggest that exercise cessation, in the context of relapse on a HC/HF diet, may have dire metabolic consequences.
    Nutrition & Metabolism 07/2011; 8(1):49. DOI:10.1186/1743-7075-8-49 · 3.26 Impact Factor
Show more

We use cookies to give you the best possible experience on ResearchGate. Read our cookies policy to learn more.