Slc4a11 gene disruption in mice: cellular targets of sensorineuronal abnormalities.
ABSTRACT NaBC1 (the SLC4A11 gene) belongs to the SLC4 family of sodium-coupled bicarbonate (carbonate) transporter proteins and functions as an electrogenic sodium borate cotransporter. Mutations in SLC4A11 cause either corneal abnormalities (corneal hereditary dystrophy type 2) or a combined auditory and visual impairment (Harboyan syndrome). The role of NaBC1 in sensory systems is poorly understood, given the difficulty of studying patients with NaBC1 mutations. We report our findings in Slc4a11(-/-) mice generated to investigate the role of NaBC1 in sensorineural systems. In wild-type mice, specific NaBC1 immunoreactivity was detected in fibrocytes of the spiral ligament, from the basal to the apical portion of the cochlea. NaBC1 immunoreactivity was present in the vestibular labyrinth, in stromal cells underneath the non-immunoreactive sensory epithelia of the macula utricle, sacule, and crista ampullaris, and the membranous vestibular labyrinth was collapsed. Both auditory brain response and vestibular evoked potential waveforms were significantly abnormal in Slc4a11(-/-) mice. In the cornea, NaBC1 was highly expressed in the endothelial cell layer with less staining in epithelial cells. However, unlike humans, the corneal phenotype was mild with a normal slit lamp evaluation. Corneal endothelial cells were morphologically normal; however, both the absolute height of the corneal basal epithelial cells and the relative basal epithelial cell/total corneal thickness were significantly increased in Slc4a11(-/-) mice. Our results demonstrate for the first time the importance of NaBC1 in the audio-vestibular system and provide support for the hypothesis that SLC4A11 should be considered a potential candidate gene in patients with isolated sensorineural vestibular hearing abnormalities.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: To identify the underlying molecular genetic cause of disease in a patient with Harboyan syndrome and to perform a detailed assessment of her renal function. We also assessed the influence of the SLC4A11 mutation identified on the corneal endothelium in the heterozygous state. Methods: A 55-year-old female was examined ophthalmologically, audiologically and nephrologically including 24-hour urine collection. The coding region of SLC4A11 was directly sequenced. Specular microscopy was performed in the proband's 21-year-old daughter. Results: The proband had bilateral iridectomy at the age of 3 months because of an initial diagnosis of congenital glaucoma and since the age of 12 years she underwent several keratoplasties in each eye. Nephrological examination did not reveal any abnormalities. Moderate bilateral sensorineural hearing loss was confirmed by audiometry. A novel homozygous mutation predicted to lead to a premature stop codon at the protein level, c.2188C>T; p.(Arg730*), was identified in SLC4A11. No changes in corneal endothelial cell morphology or density were observed in the heterozygous daughter. Conclusion: In contrast to the Slc4a11(-/-) mouse, no abnormalities in daily renal ion excretion or polyuria were observed in the Harboyan syndrome patient. The mutation identified does not affect corneal endothelial cell morphology or density in the heterozygous state. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The SLC4A11 gene mutations cause a variety of genetic corneal diseases including CHED2, Harboyan syndrome, some cases of Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy (FECD) and possibly familial keratoconus. Three N-terminal variants of the human SLC4A11 gene, named SLC4A11-A,-B, and -C are known. The SLC4A11-B variant has been the focus of previous studies. Both the expression of the SLC4A11-C variant in the cornea and its functional properties have not been characterized, and therefore its potential pathophysiologic role in corneal diseases remains to be been explored. In the present study, we demonstrate that SLC4A11-C is the predominant SLC4A11 variant expressed in human corneal endothelial mRNA, and that the transporter functions as an electrogenic H+(OH-) permeation pathway. Disulfonic stilbenes including DIDS, H2DIDS, and SITS, and that are known to bind covalently increased SLC4A11-C mediated H(+)(OH(-)) flux by 150-200% without having a significant effect in mock-transfected cells. Noncovalently interacting DADS was without effect. We tested the efficacy of DIDS on the functionally impaired R109H mutant (SLC4A11-C numbering) that causes CHED2. DIDS (1 mM) increased H(+)(OH(-)) flux through the mutant transporter by ~ 40-90%. These studies provide a basis for future testing of more specific chemically modified dilsulfonic stilbenes as potential therapeutic agents to improve the functional impairment of specific SLC4A11 mutant transporters.AJP Cell Physiology 11/2014; 308(2):ajpcell.00271.2014. DOI:10.1152/ajpcell.00271.2014 · 3.67 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The choroid plexus epithelium (CPE) is located in the ventricular system of the brain, where it secretes the majority of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that fills the ventricular system and surrounds the central nervous system. The CPE is a highly vascularized single layer of cuboidal cells with an unsurpassed transepithelial water and solute transport rate. Several members of the slc4a family of bicarbonate transporters are expressed in the CPE. In the basolateral membrane the electroneutral Na(+) dependent Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger, NCBE (slc4a10) is expressed. In the luminal membrane, the electrogenic Na(+):HCO3 (-) cotransporter, NBCe2 (slc4a5) is expressed. The electroneutral Na(+):HCO3 (-) cotransporter, NBCn1 (slc4a7), has been located in both membranes. In addition to the bicarbonate transporters, the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger, NHE1 (slc9a1), is located in the luminal membrane of the CPE. Genetically modified mice targeting slc4a2, slc4a5, slc4a7, slc4a10, and slc9a1 have been generated. Deletion of slc4a5, 7 or 10, or slc9a1 has numerous impacts on CP function and structure in these mice. Removal of the transporters affects brain ventricle size (slc4a5 and slc4a10) and intracellular pH regulation (slc4a7 and slc4a10). In some instances, removal of the proteins from the CPE (slc4a5, 7, and 10) causes changes in abundance and localization of non-target transporters known to be involved in pH regulation and CSF secretion. The focus of this review is to combine the insights gathered from these knockout mice to highlight the impact of slc4 gene deletion on the CSF production and intracellular pH regulation resulting from the deletion of slc4a5, 7 and 10, and slc9a1. Furthermore, the review contains a comparison of the described human mutations of these genes to the findings in the knockout studies. Finally, the future perspective of utilizing these proteins as potential targets for the treatment of CSF disorders will be discussed.Frontiers in Physiology 10/2013; 4:304. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2013.00304