Integrin alpha6Bbeta4 inhibits colon cancer cell proliferation and c-Myc activity.
ABSTRACT Integrins are known to be important contributors to cancer progression. We have previously shown that the integrin beta4 subunit is up-regulated in primary colon cancer. Its partner, the integrin alpha6 subunit, exists as two different mRNA splice variants, alpha6A and alpha6B, that differ in their cytoplasmic domains but evidence for distinct biological functions of these alpha6 splice variants is still lacking.
In this work, we first analyzed the expression of integrin alpha6A and alpha6B at the protein and transcript levels in normal human colonic cells as well as colorectal adenocarcinoma cells from both primary tumors and established cell lines. Then, using forced expression experiments, we investigated the effect of alpha6A and alpha6B on the regulation of cell proliferation in a colon cancer cell line.
Using variant-specific antibodies, we observed that alpha6A and alpha6B are differentially expressed both within the normal adult colonic epithelium and between normal and diseased colonic tissues. Proliferative cells located in the lower half of the glands were found to predominantly express alpha6A, while the differentiated and quiescent colonocytes in the upper half of the glands and surface epithelium expressed alpha6B. A relative decrease of alpha6B expression was also identified in primary colon tumors and adenocarcinoma cell lines suggesting that the alpha6A/alpha6B ratios may be linked to the proliferative status of colonic cells. Additional studies in colon cancer cells showed that experimentally restoring the alpha6A/alpha6B balance in favor of alpha6B caused a decrease in cellular S-phase entry and repressed the activity of c-Myc.
The findings that the alpha6Bbeta4 integrin is expressed in quiescent normal colonic cells and is significantly down-regulated in colon cancer cells relative to its alpha6Abeta4 counterpart are consistent with the anti-proliferative influence and inhibitory effect on c-Myc activity identified for this alpha6Bbeta4 integrin. Taken together, these findings point out the importance of integrin variant expression in colon cancer cell biology.
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ABSTRACT: Colon cancer is a deadly disease affecting millions of people worldwide. Current treatment challenges include management of disease burden as well as improvements in detection and targeting of tumor cells. To identify disease state-specific surface antigen signatures, we combined fluorescent cell barcoding with high-throughput flow cytometric profiling of primary and metastatic colon cancer lines (SW480, SW620, and HCT116). Our multiplexed technique offers improvements over conventional methods by permitting the simultaneous and rapid screening of cancer cells with reduced effort and cost. The method uses a protein-level analysis with commercially available antibodies on live cells with intact epitopes to detect potential tumor-specific targets that can be further investigated for their clinical utility. Multiplexed antibody arrays can easily be applied to other tumor types or pathologies for discovery-based approaches to target identification.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e53015. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Colorectal cancer remains one of the leading causes of death from cancer in industrialized countries. Integrins are a family of heterodimeric glycoproteins involved in bidirectional cell signaling and participate in the regulation of cell shape, adhesion, migration, differentiation, gene transcription, survival and proliferation. The α1 subunit is known to be involved in RAS/ERK proliferative pathway activation and plays an important role in mammary carcinoma cell proliferation and migration. In the small intestine, α1 is present in the crypt proliferative compartment and absent in the villus, but nothing is known about its expression in the colon mucosa, or in colorectal cancer. Results: In the present study, we demonstrated that in the colon mucosa, α1 is present in the basolateral domain of the proliferative cells of the crypt, and in the surrounding myofibroblasts. We found higher levels of α1 mRNA in 86% of tumours compared to their corresponding matched margin tissues. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that α1 staining was moderate to high in 65% of tumour cells and 97% of the reactive cells surrounding the tumour cells vs 23% of normal epithelial cells. Conclusion: Our findings suggest an active role for the α1β1 integrin in colorectal cancer progression.Biomarker Research. 03/2013; 1(1).
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ABSTRACT: Regulation of anoikis in human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) implicates differentiation state-specific mechanisms. Human IECs express distinct repertoires of integrins according to their state of differentiation. Therefore, we investigated whether alpha2beta1, alpha3beta1, alpha5beta1, and alpha6beta4 integrins perform differentiation state-specific roles in the suppression of IEC anoikis. Human (HIEC, Caco-2/15) IECs were exposed to specific antibodies that block the binding activity of integrin subunits (alpha2, alpha3, alpha5, alpha6, beta1 or beta4) to verify whether or not their inhibition induced anoikis. The knockdown of alpha6 was also performed by shRNA. Additionally, apoptosis/anoikis was induced by pharmacological inhibition of Fak (PF573228) or Src (PP2). Anoikis/apoptosis was assayed by DNA laddering, ISEL, and/or caspase activity (CASP-8, -9, or -3). Activation levels of Fak and Src, as well as functional Fak-Src interactions, were also assessed. We report herein that differentiated IECs exhibit a greater sensitivity to anoikis than undifferentiated ones. This involves an earlier onset of anoikis when kept in suspension, as well as significantly greater contributions from beta1 and beta4 integrins in the suppression of anoikis in differentiated cells, and functional distinctions between beta1 and beta4 integrins in engaging both Fak and Src, or Src only, respectively. Likewise, Fak performs significantly greater contributions in the suppression of anoikis in differentiated cells. Additionally, we show that alpha2beta1 and alpha5beta1 suppress anoikis in undifferentiated cells, whereas alpha3beta1 does so in differentiated ones. Furthermore, we provide evidence that alpha6beta4 contributes to the suppression of anoikis in a primarily alpha6 subunit-dependent manner in undifferentiated cells, whereas this same integrin in differentiated cells performs significantly greater contributions in anoikis suppression than its undifferentiated state-counterpart, in addition to doing so through a dependence on both of its subunits. Our findings indicate that the suppression of human IEC anoikis implicates differentiation state-selective repertoires of integrins, which in turn results into distinctions in anoikis regulation, and sensitivity, between undifferentiated and differentiated IECs. These data further the functional understanding of the concept that the suppression of anoikis is subjected to cell differentiation state-selective mechanisms.BMC Cell Biology 12/2013; 14(1):53. · 2.81 Impact Factor