Immunomodulators Are Associated With a Lower Risk of First Surgery Among Patients With Non-Penetrating Non-Stricturing Crohn's Disease
ABSTRACT Early immunomodulator therapy may alter the natural history of Crohn's disease in certain patients. We determined whether immunomodulator use was associated with a lower risk of first surgery among patients with non-stricturing non-penetrating Crohn's disease.
A total of 159 consecutive patients with non-penetrating non-stricturing Crohn's disease from 1994 to 2005 were retrospectively identified and followed from diagnosis to either first surgery (surgery group) or last clinic follow-up (medication group) in a historical cohort analysis. Immunomodulator use, duration, disease location, age at diagnosis, smoking, family history, and decade of diagnosis were compared. Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for propensity score to determine whether immunomodulator use lasting >6 months decreased the risk of first surgery and whether duration of therapy affected risk.
The median duration of follow-up was similar (6.0 vs. 5.5 years), age at diagnosis 10 years earlier, and isolated colonic disease three times less common (18 vs. 49%) in the surgery group as compared with the medication group. Immunomodulator use increased with time but overall was less common in the surgical group (24 vs. 48%). In the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model immunomodulator use was associated with a lower risk of surgery (hazard ratio, 0.41; 95% confidence interval 0.21-0.81) after adjustment for propensity score. Similarly, risk of surgery declined with duration of use.
Immunomodulator use is associated with a decreased risk of first surgery among patients with non-stricturing non-penetrating CD. Early immunomodulator therapy may be beneficial in preventing first surgery in this population that has yet to develop penetrating or fistulizing complications.
SourceAvailable from: Tetsuji FujitaThe American Journal of Gastroenterology 09/2014; 109(9):1497. DOI:10.1038/ajg.2014.191 · 9.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective. Childhood onset Crohn's disease (CD) is considered more aggressive than adult onset disease. Epithelioid cell granulomas in intestinal biopsies are one, non-obligate, criterion of CD. We investigated granulomas as markers of CD severity in children followed to adulthood. Material and methods. Forty-five individuals with childhood onset CD were studied from diagnosis until attainment of final height, with data on disease location, medical and surgical management and with detailed growth data analyses. A blinded review of diagnostic biopsies was also performed. Results. We found granulomas in 22/45 (49%) children at diagnosis, altogether in 28/45 (62%) patients during the disease course (median overall follow-up - 12.3 years, range 9.3-18). Granulomas were found in 9/11 (82%) with upper gastrointestinal involvement (cumulatively 17/20, 85%) (p = 0.017 and p = 0.006, respectively). The time from diagnosis to initiating immune modulating treatment (median 4.5 months, range 0-75) was shorter in the granuloma-positive group (16/22) compared to the granuloma-negative group (18/23) (median 33 months, range 2-105; p = 0.01). The median standard deviation score height at diagnosis and final adult height (both adjusted for target height) did not correlate to findings of granulomas. Conclusions. Epithelioid cell granulomas were associated with a shorter time to initiating immune modulating drugs, as a possible sign of more severe disease, but growth was not affected.Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 05/2014; 49(8):1-8. DOI:10.3109/00365521.2014.920911 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background In the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD), mucosal healing has become a major goal, with the hope of avoiding intestinal damage from chronic inflammation. Magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) has emerged as a non-invasive means of monitoring inflammation and damage.AimsAs part of the development of MRE-based multi-item measures of inflammation and damage for paediatric studies, we carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify MRE variables used to describe these two distinct concepts.Methods2501 studies of MRI and CD were identified. Studies written in any language reporting individual MRE signs for patients diagnosed with CD were included. Two-hundred-and-forty-four studies were fully reviewed and 62 were included (inflammation, n = 51; damage, n = 24). Sensitivity, specificity and associated confidence intervals were calculated, and hierarchical summary ROC curves were constructed for each MRE sign.ResultsA total of 22 MRE signs were used to reflect inflammation, and 9 to reflect damage. Diagnostic accuracy of MRE signs of inflammation and damage was heterogeneous; however, wall enhancement, mucosal lesions and wall T2 hyperintensity were the most consistently useful for inflammation (most sensitivities >80% and specificities >90%), and detection of abscess and fistula were most consistently useful for damage (most sensitivities >90%, specificities >95%).Conclusions Identifying the best MRE variables to reflect inflammation and damage will maximise the utility of this rapidly emerging technique and is the first stage of constructing MRE-based indices for evaluating inflammation and intestinal damage.Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 11/2014; DOI:10.1111/apt.13024 · 4.55 Impact Factor