Metabolomics for Assessment of Nutritional Status

Department of Food Science and Technology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.
Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care 10/2009; 12(5):501-7. DOI: 10.1097/MCO.0b013e32832f1916
Source: PubMed


The current rise in diet-related diseases continues to be one of the most significant health problems facing both the developed and the developing world. The use of metabolomics - the accurate and comprehensive measurement of a significant fraction of important metabolites in accessible biological fluids - for the assessment of nutritional status is a promising way forward. The basic toolset, targets and knowledge are all being developed in the emerging field of metabolomics, yet important knowledge and technology gaps will need to be addressed in order to bring such assessment to practice.
Dysregulation within the principal metabolic organs (e.g. intestine, adipose, skeletal muscle and liver) are at the center of a diet-disease paradigm that includes metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and obesity. The assessment of both essential nutrient status and the more comprehensive systemic metabolic response to dietary, lifestyle and environmental influences (e.g. metabolic phenotype) are necessary for the evaluation of status in individuals that can identify the multiple targets of intervention needed to address metabolic disease.
The first proofs of principle building the knowledge to bring actionable metabolic diagnostics to practice through metabolomics are now appearing.

Download full-text


Available from: Bruce German,
22 Reads
  • Source
    • "Several studies have shown dramatic effects of storage of urine samples at a temperature above 4 °C. Changes were reported in the metabolic profiles of urine samples and bacterial contamination was observed (Barton et al. 2008; Gika et al. 2007; Saude and Sykes 2007; Zivkovic and German 2009). Thus, to ensure sample stability during long periods of storage, a temperature of -80 °C is recommended . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Metabolomics is a dynamic and emerging research field, similar to proteomics, transcriptomics and genomics in affording global understanding of biological systems. It is particularly useful in functional genomic studies in which metabolism is thought to be perturbed. Metabolomics provides a snapshot of the metabolic dynamics that reflect the response of living systems to both pathophysiological stimuli and/or genetic modification. Because this approach makes possible the examination of interactions between an organism and its diet or environment, it is particularly useful for identifying biomarkers of disease processes that involve the environment. For example, the interaction of a high fat diet with cardiovascular disease can be studied via such a metabolomics approach by modeling the interaction between genes and diet. The high reproducibility of NMR-based techniques gives this method a number of advantages over other analytical techniques in large-scale and long-term metabolomic studies, such as epidemiological studies. This approach has been used to study a wide range of diseases, through the examination of biofluids, including blood plasma/serum, urine, blister fluid, saliva and semen, as well as tissue extracts and intact tissue biopsies. However, complicating the use of NMR spectroscopy in biomarker discovery is the fact that numerous variables can effect metabolic composition including, fasting, stress, drug administration, diet, gender, age, physical activity, life style and the subject’s health condition. To minimize the influence of these variations in the datasets, all experimental conditions including sample collection, storage, preparation as well as NMR spectroscopic parameters and data analysis should be optimized carefully and conducted in an identical manner as described by the local standard operating protocol . This review highlights the potential applications of NMR-based metabolomics studies and gives some recommendations to improve sample collection, sample preparation and data analysis in using this approach.
    Metabolomics 04/2013; 9(5). DOI:10.1007/s11306-013-0524-y · 3.86 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "As the profession of dietetics and health sciences trends towards individualized nutrition [12,15], developing biomarkers that measure intake of specific foods, rather than nutrients, may become a primary focus [2]. The emerging field of metabolomics in human nutrition may advance the discovery of novel biomarkers for specific dietary intake and consequently health status [16]. Metabolomics is the identification of small molecule metabolites and nutrients available in biological fluids (blood, saliva, urine, etc.) that makes up the metabolome [17,18]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The subjective nature of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods presents numerous challenges to obtaining accurate dietary intake and nutritional status. This limitation can be overcome by the use of dietary biomarkers, which are able to objectively assess dietary consumption (or exposure) without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors. The need for dietary biomarkers was addressed by the Institute of Medicine, who recognized the lack of nutritional biomarkers as a knowledge gap requiring future research. The purpose of this article is to review existing literature on currently available dietary biomarkers, including novel biomarkers of specific foods and dietary components, and assess the validity, reliability and sensitivity of the markers. This review revealed several biomarkers in need of additional validation research; research is also needed to produce sensitive, specific, cost-effective and noninvasive dietary biomarkers. The emerging field of metabolomics may help to advance the development of food/nutrient biomarkers, yet advances in food metabolome databases are needed. The availability of biomarkers that estimate intake of specific foods and dietary components could greatly enhance nutritional research targeting compliance to national recommendations as well as direct associations with disease outcomes. More research is necessary to refine existing biomarkers by accounting for confounding factors, to establish new indicators of specific food intake, and to develop techniques that are cost-effective, noninvasive, rapid and accurate measures of nutritional status.
    Nutrition Journal 12/2012; 11(1):109. DOI:10.1186/1475-2891-11-109 · 2.60 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Recently, children have been enjoying chips, burgers and other high-fat content dishes, such as cakes and soft drinks; with only a very select few opting for fruits and vegetables [12]. As a result, the nutritional quality of school meal has been blamed for having too much saturated fat and non-milk extrinsic sugar or salt, and not enough fruits and vegetables etc. [13,14]. In school meal, the detrimental factor of total dietary fiber intake was the menu selection and the preference for entrees and side-dishes or special dishes. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to estimate the contents of dietary insoluble and soluble fiber in school meal. Samples of the school meals were collected from May to June in 2008. Three elementary schools and three middle schools around Masan area were selected for analysis. Dietary soluble and insoluble fibers in the school meals were analyzed directly by the AOAC method. From the initial experiment phase, we used cellulose and pectin as a standard of dietary fiber, and average recovery rate of insoluble fiber and soluble fiber was calculated. The recovery rate was observed, the cellulose 109.7±11.7% (range 90~150%) and pectin 77.8±10.8% (range 64.7~96.7%), respectively. The amounts of insoluble fiber and soluble fiber were analyzed in the total of 66 dishes, which included 7 kinds of cooked rice (bab) made with some cereal products and vegetables, 19 kinds of soup (guk) made with meats or vegetables, 11 kinds of kimchi, 21 kinds of entrées or side dishes, and 8 special dishes. Conclusively the school meal, per serving size, would provide above 75% KDRI of total dietary fibers through mainly soups and special menu, with the exception to fruits. In addition, it might be expected that children could consume more soluble fiber from the meals with the special dishes than from the regular ones.
    Nutrition research and practice 02/2012; 6(1):28-34. DOI:10.4162/nrp.2012.6.1.28 · 1.44 Impact Factor
Show more