ABCB4 gene mutations and single-nucleotide polymorphisms in women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.
ABSTRACT To evaluate the nature and frequency of ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 4 (ABCB4) gene variants in a series of French patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP).
In this prospective study, the entire ABCB4 gene coding sequence was analysed by DNA sequencing in 50 unrelated women with ICP defined by pruritus and raised serum alanine aminotransferase activity or bile acid concentration, with recovery after delivery. Genomic variants detected in patients with ICP were sought in 107 control pregnant women. Patients with ICP and controls were of Caucasian origin.
Eight genomic variants were observed. One nonsense mutation (p.Arg144Stop) and two missense mutations (p.Ser320Phe and p.Thr775Met) were revealed each in one heterozygous patient. A third missense mutation (p.Arg590Gln) was detected in three heterozygous patients and in two homozygous patients also homozygous for a particular haplotype of three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (c.175C>T, c.504T>C, c.711A>T). The chromosomal frequency of the p.Arg590Gln variant was significantly different between the ICP and control group (7.0% vs 0.5%; p = 0.0017; OR 16.03, 95% CI 1.94 to 132.16). An association was also found between allele T of the c.504T>C silent nucleotide polymorphism and ICP (68.0% vs 53.7%; p = 0.017; OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.08 to 3.11). The chromosomal frequency of the p.Arg652Gly variant did not differ between the ICP and control group (p = 0.40).
This study shows that 16% of Caucasian patients with ICP bear ABCB4 gene mutations, and confirms the significant involvement of this gene in the pathogenesis of this complex disorder.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: ABCB4 flops phosphatidylcholine into the bile canaliculus to protect the biliary tree from the detergent activity of bile salts. Homozygous-null ABCB4 mutations cause the childhood liver disease, progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, but cause and effect is less clear, with many missense mutations linked to less severe cholestatic diseases. ABCB4(S320F) , in particular, is described in 13 patients, including in heterozygosity with ABCB4(A286V) , ABCB4(A953D) , and null mutants, whose symptoms cover the spectrum of cholestatic disease. We sought to define the impact of these mutations on the floppase, explain the link with multiple conditions at the molecular level, and investigate the potential for reversal. ABCB4(S320F) , ABCB4(A286V) , and ABCB4(A953D) expression was engineered in naïve cultured cells. Floppase expression, localization, and activity were measured by western blot, confocal microscopy, and lipid transport assays, respectively. ABCB4(S320F) was fully active for floppase activity but expression at the plasma membrane was reduced to 50%. ABCB4(A286V) expressed and trafficked efficiently but could not flop lipid, and ABCB4(A953D) expressed poorly and was impaired in floppase activity. Proteasome inhibition stabilized nascent ABCB4(S320F) and ABCB4(A953D) but did not improve plasma membrane localization. Cyclosporin-A improved plasma membrane localization of both ABCB4(S320F) and ABCB4(A953D) , but inhibited floppase activity. Conclusion: The level of ABCB4 functionality correlates with, and is the primary determinant of, cholestatic disease severity in these patients. ABCB4(S320F) homozygosity, with half the normal level of ABCB4, is the tipping point between more benign and potentially fatal cholestasis and makes these patients more acutely sensitive to environmental effects. Cyclosporin-A increased expression of ABCB4(S320F) and ABCB4(A953D) , suggesting that chemical chaperones could be exploited for therapeutic benefit to usher in a new era of personalized medicine for patients with ABCB4-dependent cholestatic disease. (Hepatology 2014;59:1921-1931).Hepatology 05/2014; 59(5):1921-1931. · 12.00 Impact Factor
Article: Liver abnormalities in pregnancy.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Abnormalities of liver function (notably rise in alkaline phosphatase and fall in serum albumin) are common in normal pregnancy, whereas rise in serum bilirubin and aminotransferase suggest either exacerbation of underlying pre-existing liver disease, liver disease related to pregnancy or liver disease unrelated to pregnancy. Pregnant women appear to have a worse outcome when infected with Hepatitis E virus. Liver diseases associated with pregnancy include abnormalities associated hyperemesis gravidarum, acute fatty liver disease, pre-eclampsia, cholestasis of pregnancy and HELLP syndrome. Prompt investigation and diagnosis is important in ensuring a successful maternal and foetal outcome. In general, prompt delivery is the treatment of choice for acute fatty liver, pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome and ursodeoxycholic acid is used for cholestasis of pregnancy although it is not licenced for this indication.Best practice & research. Clinical gastroenterology 08/2013; 27(4):565-575. · 2.48 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Pregnancy is a special clinical state with several normal physiological changes that influence body organs including the liver. Liver disease can cause significant morbidity and mortality in both pregnant women and their infants. This review summarizes liver diseases that are unique to pregnancy. We discuss clinical conditions that are seen only in pregnant women and involve the liver; from Hyperemesis Gravidarum that happens in 1 out of 200 pregnancies and Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (0.5%-1.5% prevalence), to the more frequent condition of preeclampsia (10% prevalence) and its severe form; hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and a low platelet count syndrome (12% of pregnancies with preeclampsia), to the rare entity of Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy (incidence of 1 per 7270 to 13000 deliveries). Although pathogeneses behind the development of these aliments are not fully understood, theories have been proposed. Some propose the special physiological changes that accompany pregnancy as a precipitant. Others suggest a constellation of factors including both the mother and her fetus that come together to trigger those unique conditions. Reaching a timely and accurate diagnosis of such conditions can be challenging. The timing of the condition in relation toward which trimester it starts at is a key. Accurate diagnosis can be made using specific clinical findings and blood tests. Some entities have well-defined criteria that help not only in making the diagnosis, but also in classifying the disease according to its severity. Management of these conditions range from simple medical remedies to measures such as immediate termination of the pregnancy. In specific conditions, it is prudent to have expert obstetric and medical specialists teaming up to help improve the outcomes.World Journal of Gastroenterology 11/2013; 19(43):7639-46. · 2.55 Impact Factor