Effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on thyroid function in depressed patients with primary hypothyroidism or normal thyroid function.
ABSTRACT Several studies with ambiguous results have examined the effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on thyroid function. This study aimed to establish the effects of fluoxetine and sertraline treatments on thyroid function and thyroid autoimmunity in patients with major depression and primary hypothyroidism and in patients with major depression and normal thyroid function.
This was a prospective, controlled, intervention study involving 67 subjects: 28 patients with major depression and hypothyroidism on adequate levothyroxine therapy randomized for treatment with fluoxetine (n = 13) or sertraline (n = 15); 29 patients with major depression and normal thyroid function treated with fluoxetine (n = 15) or sertraline (n = 14) and 10 control patients with hypothyroidism on adequate levothyroxine therapy without depression. Main outcome measures included thyrotropin, thyroxine (T(4)), free thyroxine, triiodothyronine (T(3)), anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies, and Hamilton depression (HAM-D) rating scale.
Patients with normal thyroid function who were treated with fluoxetine demonstrated a significant reduction of T(3) after 15 and 30 days of treatment (p = 0.034 and p = 0.011) and a significant reduction of T(4) throughout the intervention period (p = 0.04 after 15 days; p = 0.015 after 30 days; and p = 0.029 after 90 days). However, all thyroid parameters remained within the euthyroid range. No changes were observed among hypothyroid patients on levothyroxine replacement therapy who were treated with either SSRI. The degree of improvement in depression symptoms (HAM-D rating scale) after 90 days of SSRI treatment was correlated with T(3) levels reduction among patients with normal thyroid function randomized for sertraline and among patients with hypothyroidism randomized for fluoxetine. T(3) levels remained within the euthyroid range during the study period.
Neither fluoxetine nor sertraline was associated with clinically significant changes in thyroid function or thyroid autoimmunity in either primary hypothyroid or normal thyroid function patients with depression. However, results suggest that patients with normal thyroid function who were treated with fluoxetine are more susceptible to minor changes within the serotoninergic system than patients with hypothyroidism on the same SSRI therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the safety of administering SSRIs in hypothyroid patients.
SourceAvailable from: Agata Orzechowska[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The clinical implications of thyroid hormones in depression have been studied extensively and still remains disputable. Supplementation of thyroid hormones is considered to augment and accelerate antidepressant treatment. Studies on the role of thyroid hormones in depression deliver contradictory results. Here we assess theirs impact on depression severity and final clinical outcome in patients with major depression. Thyrotropin, free thyroxine (FT4), and free triiodothyronine (FT3) concentrations were measured with automated quantitative enzyme immunoassay. Depression severity and final clinical outcome were rated with 17-itemic Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [HDRS(17)] and Clinical Global Impression Scales for severity and for improvement (CGIs, CGIi). FT3 and FT4 concentrations were significantly positively correlated with clinical improvement evaluated with CGIi (R = 0.38, P = 0.012; R = 0.33, P = 0.034, respectively). There was a significant correlation between FT4 concentrations and depression severity assessed in HDRS(17) (R = 0.31, P = 0.047). Male patients presented significantly higher FT3 serum levels (Z = 2.34, P = 0.018) and significantly greater clinical improvement (Z = 2.36, P = 0.018) when compared to female patients. We conclude that free thyroid hormones concentrations are associated with depression severity and have an impact on final clinical outcome. It can be more efficient to augment and accelerate the treatment of major depressive disorder with triiodothyronine instead of levothyroxine because of individual differences in thyroid hormones metabolism.Molecular Biology Reports 01/2014; 41(4). DOI:10.1007/s11033-014-3097-6 · 1.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Thyroid hormone disturbances are the commonest endocrine disturbances seen in general practice and in hospital medicine. Interpretation of thyroid function tests is complicated by the numerous drug effects on thyroid hormone biosynthesis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and free hormone concentrations in the blood. It is vital to have an understanding of the numerous drug effects on thyroid function and hormone levels when requesting and interpreting thyroid function tests. The most commonly encountered drugs are described below with likely mechanisms of action.CPD Bulletin Clinical Biochemistry 08/2013; 11(3):92.
Thyroid and Parathyroid Diseases - New Insights into Some Old and Some New Issues, 03/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0221-2