In the clinic. Preoperative evaluation.
ABSTRACT The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including PIER (Physicians' Information and Education Resource) and MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic from these primary sources in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing division and with assistance of science writers and physician writers. Editorial consultants from PIER and MKSAP provide expert review of the content. Readers who are interested in these primary resources for more detail can consult www.acponline.org, http://pier.acponline.org, and other resources referenced within each issue of In the Clinic. The information contained herein should never be used as a substitute for clinical judgment. CME OBJECTIVE: To review strategies to evaluate and reduce perioperative risk.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Preoperative risk evaluation is a very important work before a cardiac surgery. Clinicians always have to spend much time reviewing the information about operative risk factors. In this paper, we have made a few tentative attempts to help clinicians improve the efficiency of risk evaluation. First a surgery-problem network for cardiac surgeries is built to extract the associated medical problems from patient history problems. Then a set of data filter rules are defined for each medical problem to retrieve the required data, which is clustered around the problems and forms a set of snapshots. After that, we propose a multi-level-timeline method to visualize the problems and snapshots extracted. Finally, a special problem-snapshot visualization tool for cardiac preoperative evaluation is designed and developed as a result. The tool provides a quick way of reviewing the information which is helpful for cardiac preoperative risk evaluation through information visualization technology. It can save a lot of tedious work.4th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Informatics, BMEI 2011, Shanghai, China, October 15-17, 2011; 01/2011
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Preoperative risk stratification is commonly performed by assessing end-organ function (such as cardiac and pulmonary) to define postoperative risk. Little is known about impaired preoperative cognition and outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of baseline impaired cognition on postoperative outcomes in geriatric surgery patients. Subjects 65 years and older undergoing a planned elective operation requiring postoperative ICU admission were recruited prospectively. Preoperative baseline cognition was assessed using the validated Mini-Cog test. Impaired cognition was defined as a Mini-Cog score of ≤ 3. Delirium was assessed using the Confusion Assessment Method-ICU by a trained research team. Adverse outcomes were defined using the Veterans Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Program definitions. One hundred and eighty-six subjects were included, with a mean age of 73 ± 6 years. Eighty-two subjects (44%) had baseline impaired cognition. The impaired cognition group had the following unadjusted outcomes: increased incidence of 1 or more postoperative complications (41% vs 24%; p = 0.011), higher incidence of delirium (78% vs 37%; p < 0.001), longer hospital stays (15 ± 14 vs 9 ± 9 days; p = 0.001), higher rate of discharge institutionalization (42% vs 18%; p = 0.001), and higher 6-month mortality (13% vs 5%; p = 0.040). Adjusting for potential confounders determined by univariate analysis, logistic regression found impaired cognition was still associated with the occurrence of 1 or more postoperative complications (odds ratio = 2.401; 95% CI, 1.185-4.865; p = 0.015). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed higher mortality in the impaired cognition group (log-rank p = 0.008). Baseline cognitive impairment in older adults undergoing major elective operations is related to adverse postoperative outcomes including increased complications, length of stay, and long-term mortality. Improved understanding of baseline cognition and surgical outcomes can aid surgical decision making in older adults.Journal of the American College of Surgeons 05/2012; 215(1):12-7; discussion 17-8. DOI:10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2012.02.007 · 4.45 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Patients who misuse alcohol are at increased risk for surgical complications. Four weeks of preoperative abstinence decreases the risk of complications, but practical approaches for early preoperative identification of alcohol misuse are needed. To evaluate whether results of alcohol screening with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test - Consumption (AUDIT-C) questionnaire-up to a year before surgery-were associated with the risk of postoperative complications. This is a cohort study. Male Veterans Affairs (VA) patients were eligible if they had major noncardiac surgery assessed by the VA's Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP) in fiscal years 2004-2006, and completed the AUDIT-C alcohol screening questionnaire (0-12 points) on a mailed survey within 1 year before surgery. One or more postoperative complication(s) within 30 days of surgery based on VASQIP nurse medical record reviews. Among 9,176 eligible men, 16.3% screened positive for alcohol misuse with AUDIT-C scores ≥ 5, and 7.8% had postoperative complications. Patients with AUDIT-C scores ≥ 5 were at significantly increased risk for postoperative complications, compared to patients who drank less. In analyses adjusted for age, smoking, and days from screening to surgery, the estimated prevalence of postoperative complications increased from 5.6% (95% CI 4.8-6.6%) in patients with AUDIT-C scores 1-4, to 7.9% (6.3-9.7%) in patients with AUDIT-Cs 5-8, 9.7% (6.6-14.1%) in patients with AUDIT-Cs 9-10 and 14.0% (8.9-21.3%) in patients with AUDIT-Cs 11-12. In fully-adjusted analyses that included preoperative covariates potentially in the causal pathway between alcohol misuse and complications, the estimated prevalence of postoperative complications increased significantly from 4.8% (4.1-5.7%) in patients with AUDIT-C scores 1-4, to 6.9% (5.5-8.7%) in patients with AUDIT-Cs 5-8 and 7.5% (5.0-11.3%) among those with AUDIT-Cs 9-10. AUDIT-C scores of 5 or more up to a year before surgery were associated with increased postoperative complications.Journal of General Internal Medicine 09/2010; 26(2):162-9. DOI:10.1007/s11606-010-1475-x · 3.42 Impact Factor