The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including PIER (Physicians' Information and Education Resource) and MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic from these primary sources in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing division and with assistance of science writers and physician writers. Editorial consultants from PIER and MKSAP provide expert review of the content. Readers who are interested in these primary resources for more detail can consult www.acponline.org, http://pier.acponline.org, and other resources referenced within each issue of In the Clinic. The information contained herein should never be used as a substitute for clinical judgment. CME OBJECTIVE: To review strategies to evaluate and reduce perioperative risk.
"Clinical perioperative cardiovascular risk was assessed according to the Revised Cardiac Risk Index (RCRI) modified by Lee, a well-validated and widely used risk prediction index.1 4 5 8 14 Briefly, RCRI calculates perioperative risk by sum of points. Each risk factor, including high-risk surgical procedures, history of ischaemic heart disease, pulmonary oedema, cerebrovascular disease, insulin-dependent diabetes and serum creatinine >2.0 mg/dl, is assigned one point. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate whether simple and non-invasive measurement of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and/or C-reactive protein (CRP) can predict perioperative major cardiovascular event (PMCE).
Prospective, single-centre, cohort study.
A 1900-bed tertiary-care university hospital in Seoul, Korea Design and
The predictive power of NT-proBNP, CRP and Revised Cardiac Risk Index (RCRI) for the risk of PMCE (myocardial infarction, pulmonary oedema or cardiovascular death) were evaluated from a prospective cohort of 2054 elective major non-cardiac surgery patients. Optimal cut-off values were derived from receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis. Main outcome measurement: PMCE (myocardial infarction, pulmonary oedema or cardiovascular death) within postoperative 30 days.
PMCE developed in a total of 290 patients (14.1%). Each increasing quartile of NT-proBNP or CRP level was associated with a greater risk of PMCE after adjustment for traditional clinical risk factors. The relative risk (RR) of highest versus lowest quartile was 5.2 for NT-proBNP (p<0.001) and 3.7 for CRP (p<0.001). Both NT-proBNP (cut-off = 301 ng/l) and CRP (cut-off = 3.4 mg/l) predicted PMCE better than RCRI (cut-off = 2) by ROC analysis (p<0.001). Moreover, the predictive power of RCRI (adjusted RR = 1.5) could be improved significantly by addition of CRP and NT-proBNP to RCRI (adjusted RR 4.6) (p<0.001).
High preoperative NT-proBNP or CRP is a strong and independent predictor of perioperative major cardiovascular event in non-cardiac surgery. The predictive power of current clinical risk evaluation system would be strengthened by these biomarkers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients who misuse alcohol are at increased risk for surgical complications. Four weeks of preoperative abstinence decreases the risk of complications, but practical approaches for early preoperative identification of alcohol misuse are needed.
To evaluate whether results of alcohol screening with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test - Consumption (AUDIT-C) questionnaire-up to a year before surgery-were associated with the risk of postoperative complications.
This is a cohort study.
Male Veterans Affairs (VA) patients were eligible if they had major noncardiac surgery assessed by the VA's Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP) in fiscal years 2004-2006, and completed the AUDIT-C alcohol screening questionnaire (0-12 points) on a mailed survey within 1 year before surgery.
One or more postoperative complication(s) within 30 days of surgery based on VASQIP nurse medical record reviews.
Among 9,176 eligible men, 16.3% screened positive for alcohol misuse with AUDIT-C scores ≥ 5, and 7.8% had postoperative complications. Patients with AUDIT-C scores ≥ 5 were at significantly increased risk for postoperative complications, compared to patients who drank less. In analyses adjusted for age, smoking, and days from screening to surgery, the estimated prevalence of postoperative complications increased from 5.6% (95% CI 4.8-6.6%) in patients with AUDIT-C scores 1-4, to 7.9% (6.3-9.7%) in patients with AUDIT-Cs 5-8, 9.7% (6.6-14.1%) in patients with AUDIT-Cs 9-10 and 14.0% (8.9-21.3%) in patients with AUDIT-Cs 11-12. In fully-adjusted analyses that included preoperative covariates potentially in the causal pathway between alcohol misuse and complications, the estimated prevalence of postoperative complications increased significantly from 4.8% (4.1-5.7%) in patients with AUDIT-C scores 1-4, to 6.9% (5.5-8.7%) in patients with AUDIT-Cs 5-8 and 7.5% (5.0-11.3%) among those with AUDIT-Cs 9-10.
AUDIT-C scores of 5 or more up to a year before surgery were associated with increased postoperative complications.
Journal of General Internal Medicine 09/2010; 26(2):162-9. DOI:10.1007/s11606-010-1475-x · 3.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preoperative risk evaluation is a very important work before a cardiac surgery. Clinicians always have to spend much time reviewing the information about operative risk factors. In this paper, we have made a few tentative attempts to help clinicians improve the efficiency of risk evaluation. First a surgery-problem network for cardiac surgeries is built to extract the associated medical problems from patient history problems. Then a set of data filter rules are defined for each medical problem to retrieve the required data, which is clustered around the problems and forms a set of snapshots. After that, we propose a multi-level-timeline method to visualize the problems and snapshots extracted. Finally, a special problem-snapshot visualization tool for cardiac preoperative evaluation is designed and developed as a result. The tool provides a quick way of reviewing the information which is helpful for cardiac preoperative risk evaluation through information visualization technology. It can save a lot of tedious work.
4th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Informatics, BMEI 2011, Shanghai, China, October 15-17, 2011; 01/2011
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