Article

Role of Pulse Oximetry in Examining Newborns for Congenital Heart Disease A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association and American Academy of Pediatrics

Circulation (Impact Factor: 14.95). 09/2009; 120(5):447-58. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.192576
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The purpose of this statement is to address the state of evidence on the routine use of pulse oximetry in newborns to detect critical congenital heart disease (CCHD).
A writing group appointed by the American Heart Association and the American Academy of Pediatrics reviewed the available literature addressing current detection methods for CCHD, burden of missed and/or delayed diagnosis of CCHD, rationale of oximetry screening, and clinical studies of oximetry in otherwise asymptomatic newborns. MEDLINE database searches from 1966 to 2008 were done for English-language papers using the following search terms: congenital heart disease, pulse oximetry, physical examination, murmur, echocardiography, fetal echocardiography, and newborn screening. The reference lists of identified papers were also searched. Published abstracts from major pediatric scientific meetings in 2006 to 2008 were also reviewed. The American Heart Association classification of recommendations and levels of evidence for practice guidelines were used. In an analysis of pooled studies of oximetry assessment performed after 24 hours of life, the estimated sensitivity for detecting CCHD was 69.6%, and the positive predictive value was 47.0%; however, sensitivity varied dramatically among studies from 0% to 100%. False-positive screens that required further evaluation occurred in only 0.035% of infants screened after 24 hours.
Currently, CCHD is not detected in some newborns until after their hospital discharge, which results in significant morbidity and occasional mortality. Furthermore, routine pulse oximetry performed on asymptomatic newborns after 24 hours of life, but before hospital discharge, may detect CCHD. Routine pulse oximetry performed after 24 hours in hospitals that have on-site pediatric cardiovascular services incurs very low cost and risk of harm. Future studies in larger populations and across a broad range of newborn delivery systems are needed to determine whether this practice should become standard of care in the routine assessment of the neonate.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
62 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Congenital heart disease is the most common and serious type of infant birth defect. Pulse oximetry screening has been supported in the literature as a valuable tool to aid in the prompt detection of critical defects. Pulse oximetry is easily accessible, inexpensive, and noninvasive, and can be readily performed by clinical nurses at the infant's bedside, however it remains a technology that is underutilized in newborns. Nurses can be leaders in addressing the need to translate knowledge into practice to improve the morbidity and mortality rates in the newborn population.
    Journal of Pediatric Nursing 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.pedn.2014.10.013 · 0.92 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine trends in timing of diagnosis of critical congenital heart defects (CCHDs) and factors associated with delayed diagnosis (diagnosis after discharge home following delivery). METHODS: We examined a population-based retrospective cohort of CCHD cases among live births identified through the Massachusetts Birth Defects Monitoring Program. Congenital heart defects were considered critical if the infant received corrective surgery, interventional catheterization, palliative care, or died as a result of the defect within 12 months of birth. Timing of initial diagnosis was classified as prenatal, postnatal before discharge home, or delayed. Demographic, perinatal, and mortality information was obtained from the Registry of Vital Records and Statistics. Prevalence ratios (PRs) were used to examine associations with delayed diagnosis. RESULTS: Among 460 467 live births to Massachusetts residents between 2004 and 2009, we identified 916 CCHD cases, of which 126 (13.8%) had delayed diagnosis. Rates of prenatal CCHD diagnosis increased from 44.9% in 2004 to 63.8% in 2009, whereas rates of delayed diagnosis decreased from 17.1% to 10.6% over the same time period. Among cases with delayed diagnosis, the most common defects were coarctation, pulmonary valve stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Delayed diagnosis was associated with delivery outside a tertiary hospital (adjusted PR: 3.6 [95% confidence interval: 2.5-5.2]) and isolated CCHD (adjusted PR: 1.7 [95% confidence interval: 1.1-2.7]). CONCLUSIONS: Despite increasing prenatal diagnosis of CCHDs, delayed diagnosis still occurs in over 10% of cases. Understanding factors associated with delayed diagnosis could help to improve prenatal and postnatal screening efforts, including pulse oximetry testing.
    Pediatrics 07/2014; 134(2). DOI:10.1542/peds.2013-3949 · 5.30 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Delayed diagnosis of critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) in neonates increases morbidity and mortality. The use of pulse oximetry screening is recommended to increase detection of these conditions. The contribution of pulse oximetry in a tertiary-care birthing center may be different from at other sites. METHODS: We analyzed CCHD pulse oximetry screening for newborns >= 35 weeks' gestation born at Brigham and Women's Hospital and cared for in the well-infant nursery during 2013. We identified patients with prenatal diagnosis of CCHD. We also identified infants born at other medical centers who were transferred to Boston Children's Hospital for CCHD and determined if the condition was diagnosed prenatally. RESULTS: Of 6838 infants with complete pulse oximetry data, 6803 (99.5%) passed the first screening. One infant failed all 3 screenings and had the only echocardiogram prompted by screening that showed persistent pulmonary hypertension. There was 1 false-negative screening in an infant diagnosed with interrupted aortic arch. Of 112 infants born at Brigham and Women's Hospital with CCHD, 111 had a prenatal diagnosis, and none was initially diagnosed by pulse oximetry. Of 81 infants transferred to Boston Children's Hospital from other medical centers with CCHD, 35% were diagnosed prenatally. CONCLUSIONS: In our tertiary-care setting, pulse oximetry did not detect an infant with CCHD because of effective prenatal echocardiography screening. Pulse oximetry will detect more infants in settings with a lower prenatal diagnosis rate. Improving training in complete fetal echocardiography scans should also improve timely diagnosis of CCHD.
    Pediatrics 10/2014; 134(5). DOI:10.1542/peds.2014-1461 · 5.30 Impact Factor