Supraclavicular metastases from a sex cord stromal tumor of the ovary

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Mersin University School of Medicine, Mersin, Turkey.
Tumori (Impact Factor: 1.27). 03/2009; 95(2):254-7.
Source: PubMed


Metastases to the supraclavicular fossa usually originate from head and neck or infraclavicular tumors. Ovarian primaries of supraclavicular metastases are very rare. Sex cord stromal tumors of the ovary account for 5-8% of all ovarian malignancies and there have been only a few case reports on distant metastases from these tumors. A 46-year-old woman presented to us with a left supraclavicular mass. She had had a sex cord stromal tumor in the right ovary four years before. Comprehensive clinical investigation and fine-needle aspiration cytology were performed. The lesion had the characteristics of a sex cord stromal tumor. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such a case in the English literature. We discuss its pathological and clinical features in the light of the current knowledge.

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    • "However, these tumors have malignant potential and about 50% of cases are diagnosed with metastases [7]–[8]. There are reported cases of lung, liver, brain, bone, diaphragm, abdominal wall, pancreas and adrenal gland metastases from GCTs [9]–[17]. The mechanisms underlying GCT initiation, progression, recurrence and metastasis are unknown. "
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    ABSTRACT: Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are the most common ovarian estrogen producing tumors, leading to symptoms of excessive estrogen such as endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial adenocarcinoma. These tumors have malignant potential and often recur. The etiology of GCT is unknown. TGFα is a potent mitogen for many different cells. However, its function in GCT initiation, progression and metastasis has not been determined. The present study aims to determine whether TGFα plays a role in the growth of GCT cells. KGN cells, which are derived from an invasive GCT and have many features of normal granulosa cells, were used as the cellular model. Immunohistochemistry, Western blot and RT-PCR results showed that the ErbB family of receptors is expressed in human GCT tissues and GCT cell lines. RT-PCR results also indicated that TGFα and EGF are expressed in the human granulosa cells and the GCT cell lines, suggesting that TGFα might regulate GCT cell function in an autocrine/paracrine manner. TGFα stimulated KGN cell DNA synthesis, cell proliferation, cell viability, cell cycle progression, and cell migration. TGFα rapidly activated EGFR/PI3K/Akt and mTOR pathways, as indicated by rapid phosphorylation of Akt, TSC2, Rictor, mTOR, P70S6K and S6 proteins following TGFα treatment. TGFα also rapidly activated the EGFR/MEK/ERK pathway, and P38 MAPK pathways, as indicated by the rapid phosphorylation of EGFR, MEK, ERK1/2, P38, and CREB after TGFα treatment. Whereas TGFα triggered a transient activation of Akt, it induced a sustained activation of ERK1/2 in KGN cells. Long-term treatment of KGN cells with TGFα resulted in a significant increase in cyclin D2 and a decrease in p27/Kip1, two critical regulators of granulosa cell proliferation and granulosa cell tumorigenesis. In conclusion, TGFα, via multiple signaling pathways, regulates KGN cell proliferation and migration and may play an important role in the growth and metastasis of GCTs.
    PLoS ONE 11/2012; 7(11):e48299. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0048299 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Ovarian sex-cord stromal tumors (SCST) take up 5% of the ovarian neoplasm and may develop into an ovarian mass or a haemoperitoneum. The surgical management of SCST in early-stage adult patients is not well defined. CASE REPORT: A 69 year-old postmenopausal woman was admitted for metrorrhagia, a right ovary mass and increasing pelvic pain. Preoperative clinical and instrumental examination suspected an ovarian tumor, and the laparoscopic right ophorectomy and the frozen section suggested an ovarian SCST. To fast restore and preserve woman integrity, total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) plus left salpingo-ophorectomy (SO) were performed, without compli-cations in the short and long term follow-up. CONCLUSION: In the authors' opinion, the minimally invasive manage-ment of SCST by TLH plus bilateral SO followed by a prolonged surveillance and without intensive surgical staging, could be an appropriate clinical and surgical choice in elder patient at early stage, since these tumors are slow at growth, recurring locally and only a long time after initial treatment. We suggest, after a minimally invasive treatment, a possible "wait and see" option, as in our case report.
    Journal of Cancer Therapy 01/2010; 1(1). DOI:10.4236/jct.2010.11005
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    ABSTRACT: Granulosa cell tumours are rare, potentially malignant sex cord stromal tumours of the ovary. They are unique in their presentation and histological features. Many of them are hormone-producing and this property helps them to present early unlike other epithelial ovarian cancers. As a result, most of them will be in an early stage at the time of initial diagnosis. The tumour can manifest in young girls as a juvenile form and conservative management with unilateral salpingo-opherectomy may be an option in them as 95% are unilateral. Surgery is the treatment of choice and initial staging laparatomy a determinant recurrence. Advance stage of the tumour, its size (>5 cm), mitotic figures (>10/hpf), nuclear atypia and absence of call-exner bodies are poor prognostic factors. Such tumours are characterised by late recurrences and this necessitates a prolonged follow-up. Tumour markers such as inhibin and estradiol are useful in follow-up. Chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have very little role in the initial treatment and may be suggested in case of recurrences. With appropriate treatment, a better survival rate can be achieved as against other ovarian malignancies. Methods used for locating, selecting and synthesising data: A search of Medline and Cochrane data base for the period from 1999 to 2010 was carried out to include relevant systematic reviews, meta-analysis, randomised controlled and other clinical and rare case reports. The date of the last search was January 2010.
    Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 06/2010; 50(3):216-20. DOI:10.1111/j.1479-828X.2010.01154.x · 1.51 Impact Factor
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