Clinical and laboratory assessment of the subjective experience of drug craving.
ABSTRACT Measures of subjective drug craving - often defined as the experience of an intense or compelling urge or desire - may be used to predict relapse, evaluate psychological and pharmacological treatments, and test theories of addiction and craving. This review summarizes both direct self-report questionnaires and indirect behavioral, physiological and reaction time measures designed to assess craving for alcohol, amphetamines, cocaine, heroin, marijuana, and tobacco. Multi-item questionnaires have typically been based on one of four underlying conceptualizations of addiction or craving (obsessive-compulsive, approach-avoidance, multi-dimensional, intensity-frequency-duration). Most multi-item self-report questionnaires have high internal consistency, correlate significantly with single-item craving ratings, and demonstrate several aspects of construct validity. Proposed indirect or proxy measures of craving include drug dreams, speed of drug consumption, willingness to work for drug access, selection of monetary rewards over drug access, psychophysiological reactivity, and attentional bias to drug cues. These proxy measures of craving are presumed to obviate self-report biases, to be less subject to conscious self-control, and to reflect craving which the person may not be able to articulate; however, there have been too few demonstrations of their validity and they have too many practical limitations to supplant self-report measures of craving at this time.
SourceAvailable from: José María Ruiz Sánchez de LeónNeurociencias y adiciones, Edited by Eduardo Pedrero Pérez, José María Ruiz Sánchez de León, Antonio Verdejo García, Marcos Llanero Luque, Emilio Ambrosio Flores, 01/2011: chapter Factores de vulnerabilidad para desarrollar una adicción: elementos para su prevención: pages 99-110; Sociedad Española de Toxicomanías., ISBN: 978-84-615-0572-2
Neurociencias y adiciones, Edited by Eduardo Pedrero Pérez, José María Ruiz Sánchez de León, Antonio Verdejo García, Marcos Llanero Luque, Emilio Ambrosio Flores, 01/2011: chapter Recuperación de la adicción: perspectiva neurológica y neuropsicológica: pages 395-416; Sociedad Española de Toxicomanías., ISBN: 978-84-615-0572-2
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ABSTRACT: Self-report measures are typically used to assess drug craving, but researchers have questioned whether completing these assessments can elicit or enhance craving. Previous studies have examined cigarette craving reactivity and found null craving reactivity effects. Several methodological limitations of those studies, however, preclude definitive conclusions. The current study addresses limitations of previous studies and extends this area of research by using a large sample size to examine: (1) item-by-item changes in craving level during questionnaire completion, (2) craving reactivity as a function of craving intensity reflected in item content, (3) craving reactivity differences between nicotine dependent and nondependent smokers, and (4) potential reactivity across multiple sessions. This study also used a more comprehensive craving assessment (the 32-item Questionnaire on Smoking Urges; QSU) than employed in previous studies.Addictive Behaviors 06/2015; 45. DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2015.01.012 · 2.44 Impact Factor