Evaluation of intracranial stenoses and aneurysms with accelerated 4D flow.

Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628, USA.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Impact Factor: 2.02). 08/2009; 28(1):41-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.mri.2009.05.042
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate intracranial arterial stenoses and aneurysms with accelerated time-resolved three-dimensional (3D) phase-contrast MRI or 4D flow. The 4D flow technique was utilized to image four normal volunteers, two patients with intracranial stenoses and two patients with intracranial aneurysms. In order to reduce scan time, parallel imaging was combined with an acquisition strategy that eliminates the corners of k-space. In the two patients with intracranial stenoses, 4D flow velocity measurements showed that one patient had normal velocity profiles in agreement with a previous magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA), while the second showed increased velocities that indicated a less significant narrowing than suspected on a previous MRA, as confirmed by catheter angiography. This result may have prevented an invasive angiogram. In the two patients with 4-mm intracranial aneurysm, one had a stable helical flow pattern with a large jet, while the other had a temporally unstable flow pattern with a more focal jet possibly indicating that the second aneurysm may have a higher likelihood of rupture. Accelerated 4D flow provides time-resolved 3D velocity data in an 8- to 10-min scan. In the stenosis patients, the addition of 4D flow to a traditional MRA adds the velocity data provided from transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) possibly allowing for more accurate grading of stenoses. In the aneurysm patients, visualization of flow patterns may help to provide prognostic information about future risk of rupture.

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    ABSTRACT: To use four-dimensional (4D)-flow MRI for the comprehensive in vivo analysis of hemodynamics and its relationship to size and morphology of different intracranial aneurysms (IA). We hypothesize that different IA groups, defined by size and morphology, exhibit different velocity fields, wall shear stress, and vorticity. The 4D-flow MRI (spatial resolution = 0.99-1.8 × 0.78-1.46 × 1.2-1.4 mm(3) , temporal resolution = 44-48 ms) was performed in 19 IAs (18 patients, age = 55.4 ± 13.8 years) with saccular (n = 16) and fusiform (n = 3) morphology and different sizes ranging from small (n = 8; largest dimension = 6.2 ± 0.4 mm) to large and giant (n = 11; 25 ± 7 mm). Analysis included quantification of volumetric spatial-temporal velocity distribution, vorticity, and wall shear stress (WSS) along the aneurysm's 3D surface. The 4D-flow MRI revealed distinct hemodynamic patterns for large/giant saccular aneurysms (Group 1), small saccular aneurysms (Group 2), and large/giant fusiform aneurysms (Group 3). Saccular IA (Groups 1, 2) demonstrated significantly higher peak velocities (P < 0.002) and WSS (P < 0.001) compared with fusiform aneurysms. Although intra-aneurysmal 3D velocity distributions were similar for Group 1 and 2, vorticity and WSS was significantly (P < 0.001) different (increased in Group 1 by 54%) indicating a relationship between IA size and hemodynamics. Group 3 showed reduced velocities (P < 0.001) and WSS (P < 0.001). The 4D-flow MRI demonstrated the influence of lesion size and morphology on aneurysm hemodynamics suggesting the potential of 4D-flow MRI to assist in the classification of individual aneurysms. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2013;. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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May 19, 2014