Comparison of patterns of relapse in thymic carcinoma and thymoma
ABSTRACT Thymic carcinomas are considered to be more aggressive than thymomas and carry a worse prognosis. We reviewed our recent experience with the surgical management of thymic tumors and compared the outcomes and patterns of relapse between patients with thymic carcinoma and those with thymoma.
We performed a single-institution retrospective cohort study. Data included patient demographics, stage, treatment, pathologic findings, and postoperative outcomes.
During the period 1995-2006, 120 patients with thymic tumors underwent surgical intervention, including 23 patients with thymic carcinoma and 97 patients with thymoma, as classified according to the World Health Organization 2004 histologic classification. The overall 5-year survival was significantly different between patients with thymic carcinoma and those with thymoma (thymic carcinoma, 53%; thymoma, 89%; P = .01). Data on relapse were available for 112 patients. The progression-free 5-year survival was also significantly different between patients with thymic carcinoma and those with thymoma (thymic carcinoma, 36%; thymoma, 75%; P < .01). Using multivariate analysis, thymic carcinoma and incomplete resection were found to be independent predictors of progression-free survival. Relapses in patients with thymic carcinoma tended to occur earlier, and occurred significantly more frequently at distant sites than in patients with thymoma (60% vs 13%, P = .01).
Patterns of relapse differ significantly between patients with thymic carcinoma and those with thymoma, with lower progression-free survival, earlier onset, and more distant relapses in patients with thymic carcinoma. Given the greater propensity for distant failures, the inclusion of systemic therapy in the treatment of thymic carcinoma might take on greater importance. Despite significantly higher rates of distant relapse, good overall survival in patients with thymic carcinoma can be achieved.
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ABSTRACT: Background: There is no standard treatment for recurrent thymic epithelial tumors. Although the efficacy has not been validated based on the large series studies, surgical resection is sometimes employed for patients with recurrent thymic tumors. The aim of this study is to evaluate the surgical outcomes for recurrent thymic epithelial tumors based on the Japanese nationwide database. Methods: From the database of patients whose thymic epithelial tumors were treated surgically from 1991 through 2010, the cohort who developed recurrence after the initial resection was extracted. Clinicopathological factors were reviewed, and the prognostic factors of re-resected cases were examined. Results: Twenty-eight hundred thirty-five patients who underwent surgical resection of thymic epithelial tumors were registered to the database. Among these patients, 420 (14.8%) experienced recurrence. One hundred sixty-two patients were treated surgically and 243 were treated nonsurgically for recurrent disease. The 5- and 10-year postrecurrence survival rates were 82.7% and 68.2%, respectively, in the surgery group and 43.5% and 25.4%, respectively, in the nonsurgery group (p < 0.001). According to univariate analyses, female sex and the pathological Masaoka I-II stage, nonthymic carcinoma, absence of preoperative treatment and longer recurrent-free interval (RFI) were significantly favorable factors for survival in the surgery group. According to the multivariate analysis, nonthymic carcinoma histology and longer RFI were identified to be independent prognostic factors. Conclusions: The surgical outcomes of recurrent thymic epithelial tumors are favorable in selected patients. The role of re-resection may be limited in the setting of thymic carcinoma and/or a short RFI.Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 09/2014; 10(1). DOI:10.1097/JTO.0000000000000378 · 5.80 Impact Factor
Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 12/2014; 19(6):1058. DOI:10.1093/icvts/ivu344 · 1.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Thymic epithelial tumors (TETs), which comprise thymoma and thymic carcinoma, are rare cancers with specific morphological and clinical features. Their clinical characteristics and outcomes have gradually been clarified by assessing large-scale, retrospective data obtained with international cooperation. Methods The study is a retrospective review of 187 Japanese patients with TETs who attended our institution from 1976 to 2012. Relevant clinical features of patients with TETs and their tumors, including histology, staging, treatment strategies, and overall survival, were investigated. Differences in survival were assessed by the Kaplan-Meier method and uni- and multi-variate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. Results The 187 patients included 52 patients with stage I, 37 with stage II, 22 with stage III, and 76 with stage IVa/IVb tumors according to the Masaoka-Koga Staging System. As to histological type, five patients had type A, 33 type AB, 19 type B1, 39 type B2, and 15 type B3 thymomas, whereas 68 patients had thymic carcinoma, including 11 with neuroendocrine carcinomas according to the 2004 WHO classification. Either insufficient data were available to classify the tumors of the remaining eight patients or they had rare types. Immunological abnormalities were present in 26 patients, most of whom had thymomas (21.8% of the thymoma group). Most of the patients who presented with symptoms had myasthenia gravis or extensive thymic carcinoma. Secondary cancers were present in 25 patients (13.3%). The overall 5- and 10-year survival rates for thymoma were 85.4 and 71.5%, respectively, and those for thymic carcinoma were 33.8 and 2.3%, respectively. OS differed significantly between stage IVa thymomas and thymic carcinomas. The stage and whether the tumors were thymomas or thymic carcinomas were significant determinants of survival according to multivariate analysis. Conclusion The efficacy of treatments for thymoma and thymic carcinoma should be investigated separately because these tumors differ in their clinical features and prognosis.BMC Cancer 05/2014; 14:349. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-14-349 · 3.32 Impact Factor