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Determining the adulteration of spices with Sudan I-II-II-IV dyes by UV-visible spectroscopy and multivariate classification techniques

Department of Analytical and Organic Chemistry, Rovira i Virgili University, Marcel.lí Domingo s/n Campus Sescelades, E-43007 Tarragona, Spain.
Talanta (Impact Factor: 3.51). 09/2009; 79(3):887-92. DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2009.05.023
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We propose a very simple and fast method for detecting Sudan dyes (I, II, III and IV) in commercial spices, based on characterizing samples through their UV-visible spectra and using multivariate classification techniques to establish classification rules. We applied three classification techniques: K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN), Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA). A total of 27 commercial spice samples (turmeric, curry, hot paprika and mild paprika) were analysed by chromatography (HPLC-DAD) to check that they were free of Sudan dyes. These samples were then spiked with Sudan dyes (I, II, III and IV) up to a concentration of 5 mg L(-1). Our final data set consisted of 135 samples distributed in five classes: samples without Sudan dyes, samples spiked with Sudan I, samples spiked with Sudan II, samples spiked with Sudan III and samples spiked with Sudan IV. Classification results were good and satisfactory using the classification techniques mentioned above: 99.3%, 96.3% and 90.4% of correct classification with PLS-DA, KNN and SIMCA, respectively. It should be pointed out that with SIMCA, there are no real classification errors as no samples were assigned to the wrong class: they were just not assigned to any of the pre-defined classes.

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