Rate of Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction in the United States from 1988 to 2004 (from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample)
ABSTRACT Advances in the management of atherosclerosis risk factors have been dramatic in the previous 10 years. The goal of this study was to evaluate any decrease in age-adjusted incidence of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in a very large database of inpatient admissions from 1988 to 2004. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was used to calculate the age-adjusted rate for STEMI from 1988 to 2004 retrospectively. Specific International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes for MIs consistent with STEMI were used. Patient demographic data were also analyzed and adjusted for age. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database contained 1,352,574 patients >40 years of age who had a diagnosis of STEMI from 1988 to 2004. Mean age for these patients was 66.06 +/- 13.69 years. Men had almost 2 times the age-adjusted STEMI rate as women (men 62.4%, women 37.6%). From 1988 the age-adjusted rate for all acute STEMIs remained steady for 8 years (108.3 per 100,000, 95% confidence interval [CI] 99.0 to 117.5, in 1988 and 102.5 per 100,000, 95% CI 94.7 to 110.4, in 1996). However, from 1996 onward, the age-adjusted incidence of STEMI steadily decreased to 1/2 the incidence of the previous 8 years (50.0 per 100.000, 95% CI 46.5 to 53.5, by 2004, p <0.01). This decrease was similar across various races and genders. In conclusion, the incidence of STEMI was stable from 1988 to 1996, with a steady linear decrease to 1/2 by 2004. The cause of the steady decrease in STEMI rate most likely reflects the advancement in management of patients with atherosclerosis.
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ABSTRACT: Acute myocardial infarction in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Limited data are available on the contemporary trends in management and outcomes of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in patients with ESRD. We analyzed the 2003 to 2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample databases to examine the temporal trends in STEMI, use of mechanical revascularization for STEMI, and in-hospital outcomes in patients with ESRD aged ≥18 years in the United States. From 2003 to 2011, whereas the number of patients with ESRD admitted with the primary diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction increased from 13,322 to 20,552, there was a decrease in the number of STEMI hospitalizations from 3,169 to 2,558 (ptrend <0.001). The overall incidence rate of cardiogenic shock in patients with ESRD and STEMI increased from 6.6% to 18.3% (ptrend <0.001). The use of percutaneous coronary intervention for STEMI increased from 18.6% to 37.8% (ptrend <0.001), whereas there was no significant change in the use of coronary artery bypass grafting (ptrend = 0.32). During the study period, in-hospital mortality increased from 22.3% to 25.3% (adjusted odds ratio [per year] 1.09; 95% confidence interval 1.08 to 1.11; ptrend <0.001). The average hospital charges increased from $60,410 to $97,794 (ptrend <0.001), whereas the average length of stay decreased from 8.2 to 6.5 days (ptrend <0.001). In conclusion, although there have been favorable trends in the utilization of percutaneous coronary intervention and length of stay in patients with ESRD and STEMI, the incidence of cardiogenic shock has increased threefold, with an increase in risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality, likely because of the presence of greater co-morbidities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.The American Journal of Cardiology 01/2015; 115(8). DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2015.01.529 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Little is known whether time trends of in-hospital mortality and costs of care for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) differ by type of AMI (ST-elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI] vs. non-ST-elevation [NSTEMI]) and by the intervention received (percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI], coronary artery bypass grafting [CABG], or no intervention) in the United States. We conducted a serial cross-sectional study of all hospitalizations for AMI aged 30 years or older using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 2001-2011 (1 456 154 discharges; a weighted estimate of 7 135 592 discharges). Hospitalizations were stratified by type of AMI and intervention, and the time trends of in-hospital mortality and hospital costs were examined for each combination of the AMI type and intervention, after adjusting for both patient- and hospital-level characteristics. Compared with 2001, adjusted in-hospital mortality improved significantly for NSTEMI patients in 2011, regardless of the intervention received (PCI odds ratio [OR] 0.68, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.83; CABG OR 0.57, 0.45 to 0.72; without intervention OR 0.61, 0.57 to 0.65). As for STEMI, a decline in adjusted in-hospital mortality was significant for those who underwent PCI (OR 0.83; 0.73 to 0.94); however, no significant improvement was observed for those who received CABG or without intervention. Hospital costs per hospitalization increased significantly for patients who underwent intervention, but not for those without intervention. In the United States, the decrease in in-hospital mortality and the increase in costs differed by the AMI type and the intervention received. These non-uniform trends may be informative for designing effective health policies to reduce the health and economic burdens of AMI. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.Journal of the American Heart Association 01/2015; 4(3). DOI:10.1161/JAHA.114.001445 · 2.88 Impact Factor