Uptake of permethrin from impregnated clothing.
ABSTRACT In order to examine exposure and health risks which can arise from permethrin-impregnated clothing, a controlled trial was conducted. In a study group consisting of 187 volunteers in total, a subgroup of 86 persons was equipped with permethrin-impregnated battle dress uniforms (BDU) for 28 days. One hundred and one persons served as a control group, wearing non-impregnated BDUs throughout the entire study period of 56 days. Internal exposure of all participants was assessed by determination of urinary permethrin metabolites (cis-DCCA, trans-DCCA and 3-PBA) on day 0, 14 and 28 of the wearing period and 28 days after termination of wearing. Exposure levels in the control group ranged within background exposure of the general German population at all four dates of sampling (medians Sigma DCCA+3-PBA were 0.09, 0.13, 0.23 and 0.10mug/l, respectively). For the group equipped with impregnated BDUs this applied to day 0 (0.31mug/l) only, while the following measurements revealed considerably higher metabolite concentrations (31.39, 22.01 and 1.44mug/l, respectively), especially while wearing impregnated clothing. Due to these results a substantial uptake of permethrin from impregnated BDUs has to be assumed. However, since calculations reveal a maximum permethrin uptake clearly below the acceptable daily intake (ADI), health impairments are rather unlikely.
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ABSTRACT: Wearing of permethrin treated clothing usually implicates an uptake of permethrin by the user. Aim of our study was to examine the kinetics of internal permethrin exposure in volunteers during and after a single 8 h-use of treated clothing as well as factors potentially influencing permethrin uptake. 28 male volunteers (age: 20–34 years) were equipped with permethrin treated jackets and pants from two different suppliers. The clothing was worn for 8 h, simulating differing external conditions, including comfort conditions as well as conditions of increased temperature and humidity without and with additional physical workload. Internal permethrin exposure was monitored by determination of permethrin metabolites (DCCA and 3-PBA) in a set of 12 urine samples, covering a period of 504 h from the beginning of the wearing interval. Time–concentration curves showed an increase of internal exposure associated with wearing of the clothing (individual maximum: 109.5 μg/L) followed by a first-order like decay (mean half-life: 38.5 h). Metabolite excretion was affected by the make of clothing, which could be explained by differing permethrin contents of the garment. Furthermore, internal exposure increased with increasing temperature/humidity and additional physical workload. Assuming dermal uptake of permethrin, this may be ascribed to an alteration of the barrier function of the skin.Toxicology Letters 10/2014; · 3.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Insecticide-treated clothing has been used for many years by the military and in recreational activities as personal protection against bites from a variety of arthropods including ticks, chigger mites, sandflies and mosquitoes. Permethrin is the most commonly used active ingredient, but others, including bifenthrin, deltamethrin, cyfluthrin, DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenz-amide) and KBR3023, have also been trialled. Treatment is usually carried out by home or factory dipping. However, new microencapsulation technologies which may prolong the activity of insecticides on clothing are now available and may help to overcome the inevitable reduction in efficacy over time that occurs as a result of washing, ultraviolet light exposure, and the normal wear and tear of the fabric. The aim of this article is to review the evidence base for the use of insecticide-treated clothing for protection against bites from arthropods and its effect on arthropod-borne pathogen transmission. Although some studies do demonstrate protection against pathogen transmission, there are surprisingly few, and the level of protection provided varies according to the disease and the type of study conducted. For example, insecticide-treated clothing has been reported to give between 0% and 75% protection against malaria and between 0% and 79% protection against leishmaniasis. Studies vary in the type of treatment used, the age group of participants, the geographical location of the study, and the pathogen transmission potential. This makes it difficult to compare and assess intervention trials. Overall, there is substantial evidence that insecticide-treated clothing can provide protection against arthropod bites. Bite protection evidence suggests that insecticide-treated clothing may be useful in the prevention of pathogen transmission, but further investigations are required to accurately demonstrate transmission reduction.Medical and Veterinary Entomology 06/2014; · 2.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Permethrin is a widely applied broad-spectrum pyrethroid insecticide that consists of a mixture of cis- and trans-isomers. We examined the changes of estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities resulting from metabolism of the isomers. Both cis- and trans-permethrin were hydrolyzed to 3-phenoxybenzyl alcohol (PBAlc) by rat liver microsomes, but the extent of hydrolysis of trans-permethrin was much greater than that of the cis-isomer. In the presence of NADPH, PBAlc was further transformed to 4'-hydroxylated PBAlc (4'-OH PBAlc), 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde (PBAld) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (PBAcid). cis-Permethrin, but not trans-permethrin, also afforded its 4'-hydroxylated derivative (4'-OH cis-permethrin). trans-Permethrin was an anti-androgen, but also showed weak estrogenic activity, while cis-permethrin was a weak estrogen and a weak anti-androgen. After incubation with rat liver microsomes in the presence of NADPH, cis-permethrin but not trans-permethrin was metabolically activated for estrogenic activity. On the other hand, estrogenic activity of trans-permethrin was not changed, but its anti-androgenic activity was enhanced after incubation. 4'-OH PBAlc and PBAlc showed estrogenic activity, while PBAld and PBAlc showed anti-androgenic activity. PBAcid showed neither activity. 4'-OH cis-permethrin showed both estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities. Overall, our results indicate that permethrin is metabolically activated for estrogenic and anti-androgen activities, and the microsomal transformation of permethrin to 4'-OH cis-permethrin, 4'-OH PBAlc and PBAlc contributes to the both metabolic activations.Environmental toxicology and pharmacology. 03/2014; 37(3):996-1005.