Fossil and non-fossil sources of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in Göteborg, Sweden

Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (Impact Factor: 4.88). 08/2008; 8:16255-16289. DOI: 10.5194/acpd-8-16255-2008
Source: DOAJ

ABSTRACT Particulate matter was collected at an urban site in Göteborg (Sweden) in February/March 2005 and in June/July 2006. Additional samples were collected at a rural site for the winter period. Total carbon (TC) concentrations were 2.1–3.6 μg m−3, 1.8–1.9 μg m−3, and 2.2–3.0 μg m−3 for urban/winter, rural/winter, and urban/summer conditions, respectively. Elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), water-insoluble OC (WINSOC), and water-soluble OC (WSOC) were analyzed for 14C in order to distinguish fossil from non-fossil emissions. As wood burning is the single major source of non-fossil EC, its contribution can be quantified directly. For non-fossil OC, the wood-burning fraction was determined independently by levoglucosan and 14C analysis and combined using Latin-hypercube sampling (LHS). For the winter period, the relative contribution of EC from wood burning to the total EC was >3 times higher at the rural site compared to the urban site, whereas the absolute concentrations of EC from wood burning were elevated only moderately at the rural compared to the urban site. Thus, the urban site is substantially more influenced by fossil EC emissions. For summer, biogenic emissions dominated OC concentrations most likely due to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. During both seasons, a more pronounced fossil signal was observed for Göteborg than has previously been reported for Zurich, Switzerland. Analysis of air mass origin using back trajectories suggests that the fossil impact was larger when local sources dominated, whereas long-range transport caused an enhanced non-fossil signal. In comparison to other European locations, concentrations of levoglucosan and other monosaccharide anhydrides were low for the urban and the rural site in the area of Göteborg during winter.

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Available from: H.-A. Synal, Sep 28, 2015
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    • "Residential wood combustion or, more generally, biomass burning is a remarkable source of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 , particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 µm) emissions throughout Europe (e.g. May et al. 2009, Niemi et al. 2009, Szidat et al. 2009, Krecl et al. 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: The spatiotemporal variation of ambient particles under the influence of biomass burning emissions was studied in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area (HMA) in selected periods during 2005–2009. Monosaccharide anhydrides (MAs; levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan), commonly known biomass burning tracers, were used to estimate the wood combustion contribution to local particulate matter (PM) concentration levels at three urban background sites close to the city centre, and at three suburban sites influenced by local small-scale wood combustion. In the cold season (October–March), the mean MAs concentrations were 115–225 ng m–3 and 83–98 ng m–3 at the suburban and urban sites, respectively. In the warm season, the mean MAs concentrations were low (19–78 ng m–3), excluding open land fire smoke episodes (222–378 ng m–3). Regionally distributed wood combustion particles raised the levels over the whole HMA while particles from local wood combustion sources raised the level at suburban sites only. The estimated average contribution of wood combustion to fine particles (PM2.5) ranged from 18% to 29% at the urban sites and from 31% to 66% at the suburban sites in the cold season. The PM measurements from ambient air and combustion experiments showed that the proportions of the three MAs can be utilised to separate the wildfire particles from residential wood combustion particles.
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    • "The mean % apportionment of TC across all 26 samples into the five categorisations described above is, to nearest integer value: 2% biomass EC; 27% fossil EC; 20% fossil OC; 10% biomass OC; 41% biogenic OC (Figure S4, supplementary information). This mean relative apportionment for the Birmingham samples is compared in Figure 7 with that for Zürich (Szidat et al., 2006) and Göteburg (Szidat et al., 2009), derived using similar methods. "
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    ABSTRACT: Determination of the radiocarbon (14C) content of airborne particulate matter yields insight into the proportion of the carbonaceous material derived from fossil and contemporary carbon sources. Daily samples of PM2.5 were collected by high-volume sampler at an urban background site in Birmingham, UK, and the fraction of 14C in both the total carbon, and in the organic and elemental carbon fractions, determined by two-stage combustion to CO2, graphitisation and quantification by accelerator mass spectrometry. OC and EC content was also determined by Sunset Analyzer. The mean fraction contemporary TC in the PM2.5 samples was 0.50 (range 0.27–0.66, n = 26). There was no seasonality to the data, but there was a positive trend between fraction contemporary TC and magnitude of SOC/TC ratio and for the high values of these two parameters to be associated with air-mass back trajectories arriving in Birmingham from over land. Using a five-compartment mass balance model on fraction contemporary carbon in OC a
    Atmospheric Environment 05/2011; 45(14):2341-2348. DOI:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.02.029 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1 Scope The supplementary material outlined in this document is provided in order to present the meteorological context of the flight operations and support the analysis techniques and data quantification steps outlined in the main paper. The meteorological fields corresponding to each flying period are presented and further information regarding the photochemical context of the operations is presented. Further details regarding the volume closure between the Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and the Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (PCASP) are discussed. Comparison of the esti- mated HOA with primary combustion tracers is included. The relationship between the fractional contribution of Low-Volatility Oxygenated Organic Aerosol (LV-OOA) to the organic mass and the normalised organic signal at m/z 44 is also shown. Further information is provided regarding the Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF) analysis ex- amples from the main text, as well as a summary of some PMF diagnostics for the whole dataset. The PMF analysis was performed using the tools presented by Ulbrich et al. (2009).
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