Filogénesis del aprendizaje

Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología 01/1971;
Source: DOAJ


An analysis is presented of the philogenetic development of learning capabilities in animals. Anatomical complexity is found to correlate with behavioral flexibility and adaptability to the environment. The problems presented by the study of the philogenesis of learning are indicated.

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    ABSTRACT: It was hypothesized for many years that "the laws of learning were the same everywhere in the animal series It is difficult for the nonspecialist to appreciate quite how restricted has been the range of animals studied in experiments on animal learning because the restriction is so marked." Selected animal research is reviewed and a table is presented indicating behavior of a variety of animals in 4 classes of problem, (spatial reversal, spatial probability, visual reversal and visual probability) which differentiate rat and fish. Animals specified in the table are monkey, rat, pigeon, turtle, decorticated rat, fish, cockroach, and earthworm. Behavior of each kind of animal is evaluated in terms of its similarity to the behavior of 1 or the other of these 2 reference animals (rat and fish). This serves "as a summary of results already obtained" and "as a guide to further research." Systematic parametric variation is still of significance in comparative research; but "the table will save us some parametric effort in certain regions." An expanded table of this sort "will provide some useful clues to the evolution of intelligence and its relation to the evolution of the brain."
    American Psychologist 07/1965; 20(6):396-410. DOI:10.1037/h0022328 · 6.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: "About 90% of our work on animal learning has been done with the rat." Exploratory work with new animals, especially phylogenetically lower animals, is desirable. The mammalian phenomena which confound contemporary SR theory "are less likely to appear in more primitive species… . Broadening the phylogenetic base of our work will facilitate the broadening of our outlook, and perhaps one day we shall be able to approach even the higher forms in the same spirit of discovery." 5 figures are presented, including apparatus diagrams for studying learning in the crab, the fly, and the earthworm. From Psyc Abstracts 36:02:2EH04B. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    American Psychologist 10/1960; 15(11):704-712. DOI:10.1037/h0048359 · 6.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Investigated: the ability of the earthworm to acquire direction-habits; their characteristics; degree of permanency and relation to the brain; and their association with other factors. Manure worms and an apparatus designed to test the ability of earthworms to 'learn' to follow a simple path and to avoid an injurious chemical stimulus was used. Results show that worm were capable of acquiring modes of reaction involving a definite direction of movement and the association of 2 stimuli. The habit formed was inconstant and varied with the physiological condition of worms and imperfectly controlled external conditions. Experience affected the acquisition of direction-habits. Performance of the habitual act was not dependent upon the brain, since the worm reacted appropriately after its removal. Removal and the regeneration of the 1st 5 segments of the worm resulted in the development of a worm different in behavior from the original one. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Journal of Animal Behavior 01/1970; 2(5):332-352. DOI:10.1037/h0072456


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