Evaluation of Antibacterial Effects of Shiraz Oregano Essence (Zataria Multiflora Boiss) on Salmonella typhi and Comparing with Antibiotics
ABSTRACT According to increased bacterial resistance to common antibiotics, tendency toward using herbal drugs is increasing. Many researches have been executed about antibacterial and preservative effects of herbal essence like essences extracted from plants of Lamiaceae family (like Shiraz oregano herb). In this study, antibacterial effects of Shiraz oregano on Salmonella typhi Murium that is one of main causes of food poisoning in human, is evaluating. To provide essence 50 g of dried ground leaf of plant beside 700 mL of distilled water were poured into flask and with 1 mL min-1 velocity distillation the essence was extracted. Determination of microbial sensitivity was performed in the Kirby Bauer method. Minimal Inhibitory Condensation (MIC) and minimal bactericidal condensation for Shiraz oregano plant were 312.5 Î¼g mL-1 and 652 Î¼g mL-1, respectively. The most sensitivity of Salmonella typhi Murium was to Trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and Chloramphenicole and it was severely resistant to other antibiotics. Activity of Shiraz oregano essence against Salmonella typhi Murium was more than Tetracyclin`s activity, but in comparison with Trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and Chloramphenicole is lower. According to obtained results and limitations of increasingly usage of chemical antimicrobial substances there is a need to replacement of these substances with natural and herbal essences.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction and objective: Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen most frequently associated with extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production. These organisms are usually resistant to most antibiotics and pose a serious threat for health care associated infections. Plant essential oils rich in carvacrol and thymol have gained importance for their antimicrobial activity. We determined the composition of Zataria multiflora essential oil of the Jandagh area in Iran and measured its activity against ESBL producing urinary isolates of K. pneumoniae.Materials and methods: Essential oil was prepared from Z. multiflora at full flowering stage by hydrodistillation and its constituents were analyzed by a combination of capillary GC and GC-MS. Antibacterial activity was measured against 10 ESBL producing urinary isolates of K. pneumoniae as well as six ATCC bacterial standards by disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) using broth microdilution. Results: Zataria multiflora essential oil contained 25 constituents of which the major components were carvacrol (50.57%), thymol (13.38%) and p-cymene (8.27%). All tested bacteria were susceptible to the essential oil with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Disc diffusion results showed inhibition zones of 18.3-30.3mm for the ATCC standards and 20.7- 29.7mm for the 10 clinical isolates. MIC and MBC values were 0.015- 2.0mg/ml for ATCC strains and 0.03 to 0.5mg/ml for the clinical isolates.Conclusion: Zataria multiflora may have the potential to be used against multidrug resistant organisms such as clinical isolates of ESBL producing K. pneumoniae.Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology. 01/2011;