Article

Talassemia: características clínicas e radiográficas de interesse odontológico

RGO : Revista Gaúcha de Odontologia 01/2008;
Source: DOAJ

ABSTRACT A talassemia é um tipo de anemia hereditária que afeta predominantemente indivíduos nascidos ou descendentes de países banhados pelo Mar Mediterrâneo, como Itália e Grécia. Também conhecida como anemia de Cooley e anemia mediterrânea, a doença provoca alterações na formação da hemoglobina e malformações do crânio, ossos longos, maxila e mandíbula. Apresenta dois quadros clínicos distintos: um grave, chamado de talassemia “maior”, e outro leve, denominado talassemia “menor”. O exame hematológico diagnostica as duas formas da doença. Suas manifestações clínicas e radiográficas incluem hepatoesplenomegalia, linfadenopatia, aumento da mandíbula, aumento dos espaços medulares, trabéculas ósseas espessas e em menor quantidade, lembrando “teia de aranha”, deslocamento do canal mandibular com perda de detalhe de suas corticais superior e inferior e aspecto radiográfico de “cabelos em pé” na superfície do crânio. Algumas dessas manifestações são tão características e passíveis de serem observadas em radiografias que fazem parte da rotina do cirurgião-dentista. Neste relato de caso, são discutidas as alterações observadas na radiografia panorâmica de uma paciente com talassemia diagnosticada por meio de exame hematológico.

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