Cytomegalic inclusions in pancreatic allograft after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation: case report and literature review

Einstein (Sao Paulo) 12/2008; 6(4):481-484..
Source: DOAJ

ABSTRACT The incidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has increased inthe past years due to the use of more potent immunosuppressors,such as tacrolimus and mycophenolate. This is related to the earlypost transplantation period, when immunosuppressive regimenis more intense. Other well-known risk factors for CMV infectioninclude the serological status of donor (D) and recipient (R) and theuse of monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies for induction therapy or fortreating acute rejection. In the present study, it was reported a case ofan invasive CMV infection in the parenchyma of pancreatic allograftafter simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation. Upon diagnosis ofCMV infection, the patient also presented other clinical complicationsrelated to the transplant, such as bacterial and fungal infection, as wellas enteric fistula. The occurrence of invasive CMV infection is a rareevent, but it should be suspected if high risk factors for this infection arepresent or if there are concomitant clinical or surgical complications.Keywords: Cytomegalovirus infections; Pancreas transplantation;Kidney transplantation; Case reports

Download full-text


Available from: Erika B Rangel, Sep 02, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a common problem in solid organ transplant recipients. CMV infection of pancreas allografts is not, however, well described. We report the clinical presentation, histologic findings, treatment, and outcome in four patients with CMV allograft pancreatitis. These patients presented 18 weeks to 44 months after transplantation with elevated serum amylase and lipase and were suspected to have acute rejection. Percutaneous pancreas allograft biopsy specimens showed evidence of tissue invasive CMV infection. One patient had simultaneous CMV infection and acute rejection. Prolonged treatment with ganciclovir resulted in clinical and histologic resolution of the CMV disease. Rejection was successfully treated. Primary CMV infection in seronegative recipients seemed to be a risk factor. Three patients maintain normal allograft function; one patient lost function due to chronic rejection. The histology of tissue-invasive CMV pancreas allograft infection and its differentiation from acute rejection is described. Prompt diagnosis and prolonged therapy with antiviral agents can result in maintenance of allograft function.
    Transplantation 06/2000; 69(9):1968-71. · 3.78 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The impact of tacrolimus (TAC), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and steroid immunosuppression on cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in combination with ganciclovir prophylaxis in simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplantation (SKPT) has not been well studied. A retrospective analysis was made of 75 SKPTs performed between 1 January 1996 and 7 January 1999. All patients received ganciclovir for 3 months, but CMV donor (D)+ / recipient (R)- patients received ganciclovir for 6 months. 16/74 (22%) were CMV D+/R-, 25 (33%) D+/R+, 16 (22%) D-/R+, and 17 (23%) D-/R- (1 patient with unknown donor serology was excluded). The mean time to CMV infection was 198 days post-transplant. The incidence of either CMV infection or tissue invasive CMV disease was 16/74 (22%), including 9 (12%) with CMV infection and 7 (10%) CMV disease. The one-year patient, kidney, and pancreas graft survival rates were 91%, 89%, and 83%, respectively. The mean follow-up was 29 months (minimum of 12 months). CMV infection was not associated with an increased incidence of graft failure or mortality. The D+/R- group had the highest incidence of CMV infection (44%) compared with the other serologic groups (17%, P=0.02). Concurrent CMV and rejection occurred more frequently in the D+/R- than the other serologic groups (25% vs. 7%, P=0.03). The D-/R- group had the best outcomes, with no CMV infection, improved kidney graft survival at the end of follow-up (82% vs. 72%, P=0.04) and the highest event-free survival (no CMV infection, rejection, or graft loss) when compared to the other groups (76% vs. 33%, P<0.01). Compared to previous studies, ganciclovir prophylaxis delayed the onset and reduced the severity of CMV infection in patients receiving TAC, MMF, and steroids. Despite ganciclovir prophylaxis, CMV seronegative patients receiving CMV D+ organs had worse outcomes than seronegative recipients receiving CMV D- organs.
    Transplant Infectious Disease 03/2001; 3(1):8-15. DOI:10.1034/j.1399-3062.2001.003001008.x · 1.98 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background. The relevance of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in simultaneous pancreas kidney (SPK) transplant recipients in the modern era of immunosuppression and antiviral therapeutics is largely unquantified. We sought to determine the risk factors of CMV disease and its impact on SPK transplant outcomes in recipients all receiving a consistent regime of maintenance immunosuppression and CMV prophylaxis. Methods. This is a retrospective, single center study of 100 consecutive SPK transplant recipients. All received maintenance immunosuppression with mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, and prednisone. CMV prophylaxis consisted of a short course of parenteral gancyclovir followed by oral gancyclovir. Recipients at high-risk (D+/R-) for CMV also received CMV hyperimmune globulin. Multivariate analysis of risk factors for CMV disease and risk factors for adverse outcomes in SPK transplantation were determined. The effect of duration of prophylaxis on timing and severity of CMV disease in high-risk (D+/R-) SPK transplant recipients was also evaluated. Results. The actual 1-year rate of CMV disease was 17.0% (12.0% noninvasive, 5.0% tissue invasive); and according to donor and recipient CMV serological status was: D-/R+: 0%; D-/R-: 2.8%; D+/R+: 25.6%; and D+/R-: 40.6%. Multivariate analysis showed transplantation of organs from a donor with positive CMV serology to be predictive of CMV disease with a relative risk of 63.37 (P =0.0052). In the high-risk (D+/R-) subgroup, the duration of prophylactic therapy delayed onset of CMV disease, but had minimal effect on severity. Invasive CMV disease was an independent predictor of mortality but did not decrease kidney or pancreas allograft survival. Conclusions. Outcomes of SPK transplantation have improved in the current era of modern immunosuppression, yet CMV remains an important pathogen. The serological status of the organ donor and the duration of CMV prophylaxis are predictive of who and when CMV disease may occur. Nevertheless, new strategies that reduce risk and severity of CMV disease are still needed.
    Transplantation 12/2001; 72(12):1940-1945. DOI:10.1097/00007890-200112270-00013 · 3.78 Impact Factor