Effect of Grafting on Watermelon Plant Growth, Yield and Quality
ABSTRACT In this study, the effect of different rootstocks on watermelon plant growth, fruit yield and quality were studied by comparing grafted plants with non-grafted ones under low tunnels for early production and later open field growing conditions. The watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum and Nakai ) cultivar Crispy was grafted onto TZ-148 and RS-841, commercial hybrids of C . maxima x C . moschata and an experimental rootstock ( Lagenaria siceraria ) cv. 64-18. Non-grafted plants were used as control. Grafting significantly affected plant growth. Control plants had short main stem, less number of lateral vine and low root dry weight. Fruit yield was positively influenced by grafting when compered with the control under two growing conditions. There was a difference among grafted plants, 64-18 was significantly poor for yield characteristcs than the other rootstocks. Detrimental effects were not determinated in fruit quality such as fruit index, rind thickness and soluble solid contents on grafted plants. These results showed that the use of grafting can be an advantageous alternative in watermelon production. Grafted plants improved plant growth and yield without any harmfull effects on fruit quality. The positive effects of grafting can change according to the rootstock being used.
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ABSTRACT: Scientia Horticulturae j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w . e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / s c i h o r t i a b s t r a c t The use of grafting technology in vegetable crops, represents a significant component of the vegetable industries throughout the world. Most, if not all rootstocks and successful grafting combinations are selected on the basis of empirical testing. Obviously, there is a need for better understanding of the endogenous factors which control rootstock scion communication and processes which lead to the ben-eficial effects of grafting. The huge progress in understanding signaling processes and the involvement of phyto-hormones in all aspects of plant development and crop productivity may be utilized for more profound probing into rootstock–scion communication in grafted plants. This review summarizes some of the research results in four aspects of hormonal signaling in rootstock–scion interactions: (1) for-mation of the rootstock–scion union; (2) rootstock–scion communication; (3) improvement of grafting interactions by hormonal manipulations; (4) hormonal influence on growth, flowering, and fruit quality.
Article: Cucurbit grafting.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Due to limited availability of arable land and high market demand for off-season vegetables, cucurbits (plants in the family Cucurbitaceae) are continuously cultivated under unfavorable conditions in some countries. These conditions include environments that are too cold, wet, or dry, or are cool low-light winter greenhouses. Successive cropping can increase salinity, the incidence of cucurbit pests, and soilborne diseases like fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium spp. These conditions cause various physiological and pathological disorders leading to severe crop loss. Chemical pest control is expensive, not always effective, and can harm the environment. Grafting can overcome many of these problems. In fact, in many parts of the world, grafting is a routine technique in continuous cropping systems. It was first commonly used in Japan during the late 1920s by grafting watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai] onto pumpkin [Cucurbita moschata Duchesne ex. Poir] rootstocks. Soon after, watermelons were grafted onto bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.] rootstocks. This practice helped control declining yield due to soilborne diseases. China produces more than half the world's watermelons and cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.), and approximately 20% of these are grafted. Use of rootstocks can enhance plant vigor through vigorous attainment of soil nutrients, avoidance of soil pathogens and tolerance of low soil temperatures, salinity, and wet-soil conditions. The type of rootstock affects cucurbit plant growth, yield, and fruit quality. Cucurbit grafting is rare in the United States, but with continued loss of quality disease-free farmland along with the phase-out of methyl bromide, the U.S. cucurbit industry sees grafting as an attractive option. Some seed companies now offer watermelon transplants grafted onto squash or bottle gourd rootstocks, and some transplant facilities offer grafting services. There have been thorough analyses of cucurbit grafting in other countries, but the literature in English is limited. This review summarizes the state of the cucurbit grafting industry on a global level, translating work published in many languages.01/2008;
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ABSTRACT: Grafting watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) to control Fusarium wilt has been practiced in Europe, the Middle East, and the Far East for decades. Until recently, grafting watermelon has not been practiced in the United States due to labor costs and land availability. There is some disagreement in the literature as to the effects that grafting has on watermelon fruit quality. This study was designed to determine the effects of grafted watermelon on fruit firmness, lycopene content, and total soluble solids (TSS) using five different rootstocks. When using Cucurbita ficifolia or Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moschata hybrid as the rootstock, watermelon fruit consistently had higher fruit firmness values. Other C. maxima x C. moschata hybrids or Lagenaria siceraria rootstocks generally produced lower or more varied fruit firmness values. Grafting increased fruit firmness by as much as 25% in some cases, but field and year effects were observed. In addition, grafting had no effect on lycopene content or TSS. Furthermore, no off-flavors were detected in fruit from grafted plants, but there was a 5- to 7-day delay in fruit maturity compared to their non-grafted counterpart. Although environment can have a major influence on fruit quality attributes, rootstock selection may be equally important in achieving the desired outcome.01/2009;