Assessment of Partial Equi-Protein Replacement of Soyabean Meal with Cassava and Leucaena Leaf Meals in the Diets of Broiler Chicken Finishers
ABSTRACT Three hundred and fifty broiler chickens (Anak, 2000) were used to study the effect of partial replacement of soya bean meal (SBM) protein with cassava and or leucaena leaf meals. Diet 1 was the control diet with soyabean meal but no leaf meal. Diets 2 and 3 had 30% and 60% SBM protein respectively replaced with cassava leaf meal (CLM) protein. In diets 4 and 5, 30% and 60% of the SBM protein respectively, were replaced with leucaena leaf meal (LLM) protein. The SBM protein in diets 6 and 7 was substituted at 30% and 60% respectively with 50:50 CLM and LLM protein. The birds were assigned to the experimental diets at 10 birds per replicate and 5 replicates per treatment. The energy to protein ratios of the diets were similar. The response criteria measured were feed intake, weight gain, nitrogen retention, shank and skin pigmentation, selected carcass, organ and muscle characteristics and economics of production. The results showed that weight gain (WG, 52.1Ã‚Â±1.00 g/day) and feed intake (134Ã‚Â±4.37 g/day) were higher (P<0.05) in birds fed the control diets. On other diets, WG were 44.4Ã‚Â±4.18 g (Diet 2), 43.7Ã‚Â±2.10 g (Diet 6), 40.2Ã‚Â±4.32 g (Diet 4), 37.2Ã‚Â±4.13 g (Diet 3), 34.9Ã‚Â±1.04 g (Diet 7) and 26.0Ã‚Â±4.86 g (Diet 5) per day. Nitrogen retention was apparently highest (P>0.05) for birds on the control diet. Shanks of birds on leaf meal diets were more pigmented (P<0.05) than the control. Carcass, organ and muscle characteristics were not affected (P<0.05) by dietary treatments. Cost of feed per kilogram weight gain were similar for broiler on Diets 1, 2 and 6 ( 110, 108 and 109 respectively) and highest for Diet 5 ( 150). It was concluded that 30% replacement of soyabean meal protein in a 14% soyabean meal ration with cassava (10.50% of diet) or 50:50 cassava and leucaena (9.55% of diet) leaf meal protein would optimize growth performance and economic returns from broiler production especially during periods of high cost and scarcity of soyabean meal.
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ABSTRACT: Several leafy vegetables species (n = 17) found in Nigeria were analysed for their proximate chemical composition, mineral constituents, energy values, phytin and oxalate content in the fresh and air-dried material. The dry vegetables contained on average, 19·3 g/100 g crude protein (CP). 15·3 g/100 g crude fibre (CF), 12·7 g/100 g ether extract (EE), 17·4 g/100 g ash and 89·9 g/100 g dry matter (DM) while the fresh counterparts contained, on average, 4·2, 3·2, 0·6, 7·3 and 17·6 g/100 g CP, CF, EE, ash and DM, respectively. Marked variations were observed in the proximate compositions of all the vegetables analysed as indicated by the high coefficients of variation. Potassium, sodium, calcium and phosphorus were the most abundant minerals in the dry samples with mean values of 3·7, 3·8, 2·5 and 1·2 g/100 g, respectively. Similarly, mean values of 4·4, 6·0, 0·9 and 0·8 g/100 g, respectively, were recorded for potassium, sodium, calcium and phosphorus in the fresh samples. Copper was the least abundant mineral in both the fresh and the air-dried samples. The mean energy value was 2787 kcal/kg with a range of 2192 kcal/kg in Amaranthus hybridus to 3732 kcal/kg in Manihot esculentus. The dry vegetables generally had higher phytate and oxalate values than the fresh ones. There were distinct familial differences in these anti-nutrient constituents as indicated by the high coefficients of variation of 39·5 and 88·9% for phytate and oxalate, respectively. The nutritive potentials of the vegetables are highlighted. Dietary implications of the anti-nutrients are also discussed, and the need to develop food/feed safe programmes involving these inherent factors emphasised.Food Chemistry 01/1995; · 3.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper gives a detailed description of the working method of dissection of the turkey carcase into its parts and additionally, the cutting of the breast and leg (thigh and drumstick) to obtain the proportions of tissues. The particular cuts during the dissection are explained step by step by means of twenty-eight colour photos. The paper is completed with a definition of terms concerning the carcase and with anatomical illustrations. The objective of the description is to establish a recommended standard for the dissection of the turkey carcase in order to allow comparisons of results.World's Poultry Science Journal 06/2002; 58(2):179-197. · 1.25 Impact Factor